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Title: Quantum Efficiency Enhancement of Bialkali Photocathodes by an Atomically Thin Layer on Substrates

Abstract

Quantum efficiency (QE) enhancement in accelerator technology relevant to antimonide photocathodes (K 2CsSb) is achieved by interfacing them with atomically thin 2D crystal layers. The enhancement occurs in a reflection mode, when a 2D crystal is placed in between the photocathodes and optically reflective substrates. Specifically, the peak QE at 405 nm (3.1 eV) increases by a relative 10%, whereas the long wavelength response at 633 nm (2.0 eV) increases by a relative 36% on average and up to 80% at localized “hot spot” regions when photocathodes are deposited onto graphene–coated stainless steel. There is a similar effect for photocathodes deposited on hexagonal boron nitride monolayer coatings using nickel substrates. The enhancement does not occur when reflective substrates are replaced with optically transparent sapphire. Optical transmission, X–ray diffraction (XRD), and X–ray fluorescence (XRF) revealed that thickness, crystal orientation, quality, and elemental stoichiometry of photocathodes do not appreciably change due to 2D crystal coatings. Furthermore these results suggest that optical interactions are responsible for the QE enhancements when 2D crystal sublayers are present on reflective substrates, and provide a pathway toward a simple method of QE enhancement in semiconductor photocathodes by an atomically thin 2D crystal on substrates.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [3];  [1];  [7];  [8];  [6];  [5];  [9];  [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Photonis Defense Inc., Lancaster, PA (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Nagoya Univ. Furo, Nagoya (Japan)
  5. Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Republic of Korea)
  6. U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States)
  7. Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany)
  8. Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. (United States)
  9. High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1571425
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1570541
Report Number(s):
BNL-212225-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1862-6300
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physica Status Solidi. A, Applications and Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physica Status Solidi. A, Applications and Materials Science; Journal ID: ISSN 1862-6300
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; accelerator technology; antimonide photocathodes; bialkali; graphene; quantum efficiency enhancement

Citation Formats

Yamaguchi, Hisato, Liu, Fangze, DeFazio, Jeffrey, Gaowei, Mengjia, Guo, Lei, Alexander, Anna, Yoon, Seong In, Hyun, Chohee, Critchley, Matthew, Sinsheimer, John, Pavlenko, Vitaly, Strom, Derek, Jensen, Kevin L., Finkenstadt, Daniel, Shin, Hyeon Suk, Yamamoto, Masahiro, Smedley, John, and Moody, Nathan A. Quantum Efficiency Enhancement of Bialkali Photocathodes by an Atomically Thin Layer on Substrates. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/pssa.201900501.
Yamaguchi, Hisato, Liu, Fangze, DeFazio, Jeffrey, Gaowei, Mengjia, Guo, Lei, Alexander, Anna, Yoon, Seong In, Hyun, Chohee, Critchley, Matthew, Sinsheimer, John, Pavlenko, Vitaly, Strom, Derek, Jensen, Kevin L., Finkenstadt, Daniel, Shin, Hyeon Suk, Yamamoto, Masahiro, Smedley, John, & Moody, Nathan A. Quantum Efficiency Enhancement of Bialkali Photocathodes by an Atomically Thin Layer on Substrates. United States. doi:10.1002/pssa.201900501.
Yamaguchi, Hisato, Liu, Fangze, DeFazio, Jeffrey, Gaowei, Mengjia, Guo, Lei, Alexander, Anna, Yoon, Seong In, Hyun, Chohee, Critchley, Matthew, Sinsheimer, John, Pavlenko, Vitaly, Strom, Derek, Jensen, Kevin L., Finkenstadt, Daniel, Shin, Hyeon Suk, Yamamoto, Masahiro, Smedley, John, and Moody, Nathan A. Sun . "Quantum Efficiency Enhancement of Bialkali Photocathodes by an Atomically Thin Layer on Substrates". United States. doi:10.1002/pssa.201900501.
@article{osti_1571425,
title = {Quantum Efficiency Enhancement of Bialkali Photocathodes by an Atomically Thin Layer on Substrates},
author = {Yamaguchi, Hisato and Liu, Fangze and DeFazio, Jeffrey and Gaowei, Mengjia and Guo, Lei and Alexander, Anna and Yoon, Seong In and Hyun, Chohee and Critchley, Matthew and Sinsheimer, John and Pavlenko, Vitaly and Strom, Derek and Jensen, Kevin L. and Finkenstadt, Daniel and Shin, Hyeon Suk and Yamamoto, Masahiro and Smedley, John and Moody, Nathan A.},
abstractNote = {Quantum efficiency (QE) enhancement in accelerator technology relevant to antimonide photocathodes (K2CsSb) is achieved by interfacing them with atomically thin 2D crystal layers. The enhancement occurs in a reflection mode, when a 2D crystal is placed in between the photocathodes and optically reflective substrates. Specifically, the peak QE at 405 nm (3.1 eV) increases by a relative 10%, whereas the long wavelength response at 633 nm (2.0 eV) increases by a relative 36% on average and up to 80% at localized “hot spot” regions when photocathodes are deposited onto graphene–coated stainless steel. There is a similar effect for photocathodes deposited on hexagonal boron nitride monolayer coatings using nickel substrates. The enhancement does not occur when reflective substrates are replaced with optically transparent sapphire. Optical transmission, X–ray diffraction (XRD), and X–ray fluorescence (XRF) revealed that thickness, crystal orientation, quality, and elemental stoichiometry of photocathodes do not appreciably change due to 2D crystal coatings. Furthermore these results suggest that optical interactions are responsible for the QE enhancements when 2D crystal sublayers are present on reflective substrates, and provide a pathway toward a simple method of QE enhancement in semiconductor photocathodes by an atomically thin 2D crystal on substrates.},
doi = {10.1002/pssa.201900501},
journal = {Physica Status Solidi. A, Applications and Materials Science},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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