skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on June 24, 2020

Title: Microlensing of x-ray pulsars: A method to detect primordial black hole dark matter

Abstract

Primordial black holes (PBHs) with a mass from 10 -16 to 10 -11 M may comprise 100% of dark matter. Due to a combination of wave and finite source size effects, the traditional microlensing of stars does not probe this mass range. Here, we point out that x-ray pulsars with higher photon energies and smaller source sizes are good candidate sources for microlensing for this mass window. Among the existing x-ray pulsars, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) X-1 source is found to be the best candidate because of its apparent brightness and long distance from Earth. We have analyzed the existing observation data of SMC X-1 by the RXTE telescope (around 10 days) and found that PBH as 100% of dark matter is close to but not yet excluded. Lastly, future longer observation of this source by x-ray telescopes with larger effective areas such as AstroSat, Athena, Lynx, and eXTP can potentially close the last mass window where PBHs can make up all of dark matter.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1570845
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1546269
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1812.01427; FERMILAB-PUB-19-516-T
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; oai:inspirehep.net:1706804
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; SC0017647
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Bai, Yang, and Orlofsky, Nicholas. Microlensing of x-ray pulsars: A method to detect primordial black hole dark matter. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.123019.
Bai, Yang, & Orlofsky, Nicholas. Microlensing of x-ray pulsars: A method to detect primordial black hole dark matter. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.123019.
Bai, Yang, and Orlofsky, Nicholas. Mon . "Microlensing of x-ray pulsars: A method to detect primordial black hole dark matter". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.123019.
@article{osti_1570845,
title = {Microlensing of x-ray pulsars: A method to detect primordial black hole dark matter},
author = {Bai, Yang and Orlofsky, Nicholas},
abstractNote = {Primordial black holes (PBHs) with a mass from 10-16 to 10-11 M⊙ may comprise 100% of dark matter. Due to a combination of wave and finite source size effects, the traditional microlensing of stars does not probe this mass range. Here, we point out that x-ray pulsars with higher photon energies and smaller source sizes are good candidate sources for microlensing for this mass window. Among the existing x-ray pulsars, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) X-1 source is found to be the best candidate because of its apparent brightness and long distance from Earth. We have analyzed the existing observation data of SMC X-1 by the RXTE telescope (around 10 days) and found that PBH as 100% of dark matter is close to but not yet excluded. Lastly, future longer observation of this source by x-ray telescopes with larger effective areas such as AstroSat, Athena, Lynx, and eXTP can potentially close the last mass window where PBHs can make up all of dark matter.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.99.123019},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 12,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on June 24, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Gravitational lenses
journal, February 1994


Primordial black holes as dark matter
journal, October 2016


Do globular clusters possess dark matter haloes? A case study in NGC 2419
journal, November 2012

  • Ibata, R.; Nipoti, C.; Sollima, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 428, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts302

Black Holes in the Early Universe
journal, August 1974

  • Carr, B. J.; Hawking, S. W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 168, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/168.2.399

Origin of the Soft Excess in X‐Ray Pulsars
journal, October 2004

  • Hickox, Ryan C.; Narayan, Ramesh; Kallman, Timothy R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 614, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/423928

Primordial black holes—perspectives in gravitational wave astronomy
journal, February 2018

  • Sasaki, Misao; Suyama, Teruaki; Tanaka, Takahiro
  • Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 35, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aaa7b4

Gravitational microlensing by the galactic halo
journal, May 1986

  • Paczynski, B.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 304
  • DOI: 10.1086/164140

Study of measured pulsar masses and their possible conclusions
journal, January 2011


Accretion onto Fast X‐Ray Pulsars
journal, May 2004

  • Rappaport, S. A.; Fregeau, J. M.; Spruit, H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 606, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/382863

A good long look at the black hole candidates LMC X-1 and LMC X-3
journal, January 2001


Effect of pulse profile variations on measurement of eccentricity in orbits of Cen X-3 and SMC X-1
journal, January 2010


Femtolensing by dark matter revisited
journal, December 2018

  • Katz, Andrey; Kopp, Joachim; Sibiryakov, Sergey
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/12/005

EXPERIMENTAL LIMITS ON PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLE DARK MATTER FROM THE FIRST 2 YR OF KEPLER DATA
journal, April 2014


Evidence Against dark Matter Halos Surrounding the Globular Clusters mgc1 and ngc 2419
journal, October 2011


Empirical Models for Dark Matter Halos. II. Inner Profile Slopes, Dynamical Profiles, and ?/? 3
journal, January 2006

  • Graham, Alister W.; Merritt, David; Moore, Ben
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 132, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1086/508990

Extending the MACHO search to about 10 exp 6 solar masses
journal, June 1992

  • Gould, Andrew
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 392
  • DOI: 10.1086/171443

Pulse‐Phase Spectroscopy of SMC X‐1 with Chandra and XMM‐Newton : Reprocessing by a Precessing Disk?
journal, November 2005

  • Hickox, R. C.; Vrtilek, S. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 633, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/491596

Can lensed stars be regarded as pointlike for microlensing by MACHOs?
journal, July 1994

  • Witt, Hans J.; Mao, Shude
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 430
  • DOI: 10.1086/174426

The OGLE view of microlensing towards the Magellanic Clouds - IV. OGLE-III SMC data and final conclusions on MACHOs★: The OGLE-III view of microlensing towards the SMC
journal, August 2011


The finite source size effect and wave optics in gravitational lensing
journal, January 2006


Superorbital Phase-Resolved Analysis of smc x-1
journal, July 2013


The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT)
journal, August 2011


Features in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts
journal, August 1993

  • Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Paczynski, Bohdan; Goodman, Jeremy
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
  • DOI: 10.1086/186946

Voyager 1 e ± Further Constrain Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter
journal, January 2019


The X-ray spectrum of SMC X-1 observed from the Ariel V satellite
journal, November 1981

  • Coe, M. J.; Burnell, S. J. B.; Engel, A. R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 197, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/197.2.247

LMC X-4 - GINGA observations and search for orbital period changes
journal, November 1991

  • Levine, A.; Rappaport, S.; Putney, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 381
  • DOI: 10.1086/170632

New constraints on primordial black holes abundance from femtolensing of gamma-ray bursts
journal, August 2012


Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing
journal, February 2017

  • Mediavilla, E.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Muñoz, J. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 836, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa5dab

Axion miniclusters and Bose stars
journal, November 1993


A report on Type II X-ray bursts from SMC X-1
journal, December 2018

  • Rai, Binay; Pradhan, Pragati; Paul, Bikash Chandra
  • Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 18, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/18/12/148

Femtolensing of gamma-ray bursters
journal, February 1992

  • Gould, Andrew
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 386
  • DOI: 10.1086/186279

Constraints on primordial black holes as dark matter candidates from capture by neutron stars
journal, June 2013


Globular Clusters and dark Satellite Galaxies Through the Stream Velocity
journal, July 2014


New cosmological constraints on primordial black holes
journal, May 2010


Phase Variation in the Pulse Profile of SMC X-1
journal, October 2004

  • Neilsen, J.; Hickox, R. C.; Vrtilek, S. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 616, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/426890

Dark matter triggers of supernovae
journal, September 2015


SUZAKU X-RAY SPECTRA AND PULSE PROFILE VARIATIONS DURING THE SUPERORBITAL CYCLE OF LMC X-4
journal, August 2010


Athena: the X-ray observatory to study the hot and energetic Universe
journal, May 2015


The Dark Matter halo of the Milky Way, AD 2013
journal, July 2013


Limits on the Macho content of the Galactic Halo from the EROS-2 Survey of the Magellanic Clouds
journal, April 2007


Dark quark nuggets
journal, March 2019


Proper motions of MACHOs
journal, February 1994

  • Gould, Andrew
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 421
  • DOI: 10.1086/187190

Understanding caustic crossings in giant arcs: Characteristic scales, event rates, and constraints on compact dark matter
journal, January 2018


Tracking the Orbital and Superorbital Periods of SMC X‐1
journal, November 2007

  • Trowbridge, Sarah; Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Jorn
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 670, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/522075

A centrally heated dark halo for our Galaxy
journal, November 2016

  • Cole, D. R.; Binney, James
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2775

The LOFT mission concept
journal, April 2018


Forty eclipsing binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud: fundamental parameters and Cloud distance: SMC eclipsing binaries
journal, January 2005


Gas-rich and gas-poor structures through the stream velocity effect
journal, May 2016

  • Popa, Cristina; Naoz, Smadar; Marinacci, Federico
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1045

Microlensing of Kepler Stars as a Method of Detecting Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter
journal, December 2011


MACHO Project Limits on Black Hole Dark Matter in the 1–30 [ITAL]M[/ITAL][TINF]⊙[/TINF] Range
journal, April 2001

  • Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 550, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/319636

Ultraviolet diversity of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, June 2016

  • Foley, Ryan J.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Brown, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1440

Gravitational microlensing as a method of detecting disk dark matter and faint disk stars
journal, May 1991

  • Griest, Kim; Alcock, Charles; Axelrod, Timothy S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 372
  • DOI: 10.1086/186028