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Title: Mixed deformation styles observed on a shallow subduction thrust, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand

Abstract

Geophysical observations show spatial and temporal variations in fault slip style on shallow subduction thrust faults, but geological signatures and underlying deformation processes remain poorly understood. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 372 and 375 investigated New Zealand’s Hikurangi margin in a region that has experienced both tsunami earthquakes and repeated slow-slip events. We report direct observations from cores that sampled the active Papaku splay fault at 304 m below the seafloor. This fault roots into the plate interface and comprises an 18-m-thick main fault underlain by ~30 m of less intensely deformed footwall and an ~10-m-thick subsidiary fault above undeformed footwall. Fault zone structures include breccias, folds, and asymmetric clasts within transposed and/or dismembered, relatively homogeneous, silty hemipelagic sediments. The data demonstrate that the fault has experienced both ductile and brittle deformation. As a result, this structural variation indicates that a range of local slip speeds can occur along shallow faults, and they are controlled by temporal, potentially far-field, changes in strain rate or effective stress.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [8];  [8]
  1. Cardiff Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom)
  2. Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)
  3. Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
  4. Hohai Univ., Jiangsu (China)
  5. Univ. degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)
  6. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington (New Zealand)
  7. Imperial College London, Kensington (United Kingdom)
  8. Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  9. Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
  10. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  11. GNS Science (New Zealand)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Contributing Org.:
the IODP Expedition 372/375 Scientists
OSTI Identifier:
1570282
Report Number(s):
SAND-2019-10194J
Journal ID: ISSN 0091-7613; 678932
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 47; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0091-7613
Publisher:
Geological Society of America
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Fagereng, Å., Savage, H. M., Morgan, J. K., Wang, M., Meneghini, F., Barnes, P. M., Bell, R., Kitajima, H., McNamara, D. D., Saffer, D. M., Wallace, L. M., Petronotis, K., and LeVay, L. Mixed deformation styles observed on a shallow subduction thrust, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1130/G46367.1.
Fagereng, Å., Savage, H. M., Morgan, J. K., Wang, M., Meneghini, F., Barnes, P. M., Bell, R., Kitajima, H., McNamara, D. D., Saffer, D. M., Wallace, L. M., Petronotis, K., & LeVay, L. Mixed deformation styles observed on a shallow subduction thrust, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. United States. doi:10.1130/G46367.1.
Fagereng, Å., Savage, H. M., Morgan, J. K., Wang, M., Meneghini, F., Barnes, P. M., Bell, R., Kitajima, H., McNamara, D. D., Saffer, D. M., Wallace, L. M., Petronotis, K., and LeVay, L. Tue . "Mixed deformation styles observed on a shallow subduction thrust, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand". United States. doi:10.1130/G46367.1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1570282.
@article{osti_1570282,
title = {Mixed deformation styles observed on a shallow subduction thrust, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand},
author = {Fagereng, Å. and Savage, H. M. and Morgan, J. K. and Wang, M. and Meneghini, F. and Barnes, P. M. and Bell, R. and Kitajima, H. and McNamara, D. D. and Saffer, D. M. and Wallace, L. M. and Petronotis, K. and LeVay, L.},
abstractNote = {Geophysical observations show spatial and temporal variations in fault slip style on shallow subduction thrust faults, but geological signatures and underlying deformation processes remain poorly understood. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 372 and 375 investigated New Zealand’s Hikurangi margin in a region that has experienced both tsunami earthquakes and repeated slow-slip events. We report direct observations from cores that sampled the active Papaku splay fault at 304 m below the seafloor. This fault roots into the plate interface and comprises an 18-m-thick main fault underlain by ~30 m of less intensely deformed footwall and an ~10-m-thick subsidiary fault above undeformed footwall. Fault zone structures include breccias, folds, and asymmetric clasts within transposed and/or dismembered, relatively homogeneous, silty hemipelagic sediments. The data demonstrate that the fault has experienced both ductile and brittle deformation. As a result, this structural variation indicates that a range of local slip speeds can occur along shallow faults, and they are controlled by temporal, potentially far-field, changes in strain rate or effective stress.},
doi = {10.1130/G46367.1},
journal = {Geology},
number = 9,
volume = 47,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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