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Title: Chemical Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Headspace of Algal Cultures as Early Biomarkers of Algal Pond Crashes

Abstract

Algae ponds used in industrial biomass production are susceptible to pathogen or grazer infestation, resulting in pond crashes with high economic costs. Current methods to monitor and mitigate unhealthy ponds are hindered by a lack of early indicators that precede culture crash. We used solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify volatiles emitted from healthy and rotifer infested cultures of Microchloropsis salina. After 48 hours of algal growth, marine rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis, were added to the algae cultures and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were sampled from the headspace using SPME fibers. A GC-MS approach was used in an untargeted analysis of VOCs, followed by preliminary identification. The addition of B. plicatilis to healthy cultures of M. salina resulted in decreased algal cell numbers, relative to uninfected controls, and generated trans-β-ionone and β-cyclocitral, which were attributed to carotenoid degradation. The abundances of the carotenoid-derived VOCs increased with rotifer consumption of algae. Our results indicate that specific VOCs released by infected algae cultures may be early indicators for impending pond crashes, providing a useful tool to monitor algal biomass production and pond crash prevention.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  4. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1570268
Report Number(s):
SAND-2019-10839J
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; 679369
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Reese, Kristen L., Fisher, Carolyn L., Lane, Pamela D., Jaryenneh, James D., Moorman, Matthew W., Jones, A. Daniel, Frank, Matthias, and Lane, Todd W. Chemical Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Headspace of Algal Cultures as Early Biomarkers of Algal Pond Crashes. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-50125-z.
Reese, Kristen L., Fisher, Carolyn L., Lane, Pamela D., Jaryenneh, James D., Moorman, Matthew W., Jones, A. Daniel, Frank, Matthias, & Lane, Todd W. Chemical Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Headspace of Algal Cultures as Early Biomarkers of Algal Pond Crashes. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-50125-z.
Reese, Kristen L., Fisher, Carolyn L., Lane, Pamela D., Jaryenneh, James D., Moorman, Matthew W., Jones, A. Daniel, Frank, Matthias, and Lane, Todd W. Wed . "Chemical Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Headspace of Algal Cultures as Early Biomarkers of Algal Pond Crashes". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-50125-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1570268.
@article{osti_1570268,
title = {Chemical Profiling of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Headspace of Algal Cultures as Early Biomarkers of Algal Pond Crashes},
author = {Reese, Kristen L. and Fisher, Carolyn L. and Lane, Pamela D. and Jaryenneh, James D. and Moorman, Matthew W. and Jones, A. Daniel and Frank, Matthias and Lane, Todd W.},
abstractNote = {Algae ponds used in industrial biomass production are susceptible to pathogen or grazer infestation, resulting in pond crashes with high economic costs. Current methods to monitor and mitigate unhealthy ponds are hindered by a lack of early indicators that precede culture crash. We used solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify volatiles emitted from healthy and rotifer infested cultures of Microchloropsis salina. After 48 hours of algal growth, marine rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis, were added to the algae cultures and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were sampled from the headspace using SPME fibers. A GC-MS approach was used in an untargeted analysis of VOCs, followed by preliminary identification. The addition of B. plicatilis to healthy cultures of M. salina resulted in decreased algal cell numbers, relative to uninfected controls, and generated trans-β-ionone and β-cyclocitral, which were attributed to carotenoid degradation. The abundances of the carotenoid-derived VOCs increased with rotifer consumption of algae. Our results indicate that specific VOCs released by infected algae cultures may be early indicators for impending pond crashes, providing a useful tool to monitor algal biomass production and pond crash prevention.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-50125-z},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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