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Title: Shape memory alloy engine for high efficiency low-temperature gradient thermal to electrical conversion

Abstract

More than half of the energy generated worldwide is lost as unused thermal energy because of the lack of efficient methodology for harnessing the low-grade heat. In this paper, we demonstrate that shape-memory alloy can be an effective mechanism for recovering low-grade heat. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermally induced martensite to austenite phase transformation and super-elasticity (stress-induced martensitic transformation). Employing these two characteristics, we demonstrate a thermal engine for harnessing waste energy through all modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiation. In this work, we performed material and heat transfer analysis for achieving high frequency, sustainable and efficient operation of our engine. An optimized shape memory alloy engine generated 36 W per kilogram or 234 kW of electricity per cubic meter of active material. A continuous three-day operation of several SMA engines could generate 7.2 kWh of electricity when installed on a 500 m long hot pipe network. This generated power can potentially reduce the carbon footprint by 5.1 kg of CO 2 illustrating the promise of this technology for addressing climate change.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS)
  2. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS); Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ (United States)
  4. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  5. Kiel Univ., Kiel (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science
  6. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS). Penn States, University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Inst.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1570186
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1564585
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5500-75098
Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 251; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Shape Memory Alloy (SMA); martensite; austenite; pseudo-elasticity; heat engine; energy harvesting

Citation Formats

Kumar, Prashant, Kishore, Ravi Anant, Maurya, Deepam, Stewart, Colin J., Mirzaeifar, Reza, Quandt, Eckhard, and Priya, Shashank. Shape memory alloy engine for high efficiency low-temperature gradient thermal to electrical conversion. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.080.
Kumar, Prashant, Kishore, Ravi Anant, Maurya, Deepam, Stewart, Colin J., Mirzaeifar, Reza, Quandt, Eckhard, & Priya, Shashank. Shape memory alloy engine for high efficiency low-temperature gradient thermal to electrical conversion. United States. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.080.
Kumar, Prashant, Kishore, Ravi Anant, Maurya, Deepam, Stewart, Colin J., Mirzaeifar, Reza, Quandt, Eckhard, and Priya, Shashank. Tue . "Shape memory alloy engine for high efficiency low-temperature gradient thermal to electrical conversion". United States. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.080.
@article{osti_1570186,
title = {Shape memory alloy engine for high efficiency low-temperature gradient thermal to electrical conversion},
author = {Kumar, Prashant and Kishore, Ravi Anant and Maurya, Deepam and Stewart, Colin J. and Mirzaeifar, Reza and Quandt, Eckhard and Priya, Shashank},
abstractNote = {More than half of the energy generated worldwide is lost as unused thermal energy because of the lack of efficient methodology for harnessing the low-grade heat. In this paper, we demonstrate that shape-memory alloy can be an effective mechanism for recovering low-grade heat. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermally induced martensite to austenite phase transformation and super-elasticity (stress-induced martensitic transformation). Employing these two characteristics, we demonstrate a thermal engine for harnessing waste energy through all modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiation. In this work, we performed material and heat transfer analysis for achieving high frequency, sustainable and efficient operation of our engine. An optimized shape memory alloy engine generated 36 W per kilogram or 234 kW of electricity per cubic meter of active material. A continuous three-day operation of several SMA engines could generate 7.2 kWh of electricity when installed on a 500 m long hot pipe network. This generated power can potentially reduce the carbon footprint by 5.1 kg of CO2 illustrating the promise of this technology for addressing climate change.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.080},
journal = {Applied Energy},
number = C,
volume = 251,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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This content will become publicly available on October 1, 2020
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