skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography

Abstract

Fast, large-scale, and robust 3-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques for patterning a variety of structures with submicrometer resolution are important in many areas of science and technology such as photonics, electronics, and mechanics with a wide range of applications from tissue engineering to nanoarchitected materials. From several promising 3D manufacturing techniques for realizing different classes of structures suitable for various applications, interference lithography with diffractive masks stands out for its potential to fabricate complex structures at fast speeds. However, the interference lithography masks demonstrated generally suffer from limitations in terms of the patterns that can be generated. To overcome some of these limitations, here we propose the metasurface-mask–assisted 3D nanofabrication which provides great freedom in patterning various periodic structures. To showcase the versatility of this platform, we design metasurface masks that generate exotic periodic lattices like gyroid, rotated cubic, and diamond structures. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrate a diffractive element that can generate the diamond lattice.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Institute of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1569768
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1625044
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001293
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 116 Journal Issue: 43; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Science & Technology - Other Topics

Citation Formats

Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa, Arbabi, Ehsan, Kwon, Hyounghan, and Faraon, Andrei. Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1908382116.
Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa, Arbabi, Ehsan, Kwon, Hyounghan, & Faraon, Andrei. Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1908382116.
Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa, Arbabi, Ehsan, Kwon, Hyounghan, and Faraon, Andrei. Mon . "Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1908382116.
@article{osti_1569768,
title = {Metasurface-generated complex 3-dimensional optical fields for interference lithography},
author = {Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa and Arbabi, Ehsan and Kwon, Hyounghan and Faraon, Andrei},
abstractNote = {Fast, large-scale, and robust 3-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques for patterning a variety of structures with submicrometer resolution are important in many areas of science and technology such as photonics, electronics, and mechanics with a wide range of applications from tissue engineering to nanoarchitected materials. From several promising 3D manufacturing techniques for realizing different classes of structures suitable for various applications, interference lithography with diffractive masks stands out for its potential to fabricate complex structures at fast speeds. However, the interference lithography masks demonstrated generally suffer from limitations in terms of the patterns that can be generated. To overcome some of these limitations, here we propose the metasurface-mask–assisted 3D nanofabrication which provides great freedom in patterning various periodic structures. To showcase the versatility of this platform, we design metasurface masks that generate exotic periodic lattices like gyroid, rotated cubic, and diamond structures. As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrate a diffractive element that can generate the diamond lattice.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1908382116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 43,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1908382116

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals
journal, November 2001

  • Vlasov, Yurii A.; Bo, Xiang-Zheng; Sturm, James C.
  • Nature, Vol. 414, Issue 6861, p. 289-293
  • DOI: 10.1038/35104529

A 3D Optical Metamaterial Made by Self-Assembly
journal, October 2011

  • Vignolini, Silvia; Yufa, Nataliya A.; Cunha, Pedro S.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201103610

Miniature optical planar camera based on a wide-angle metasurface doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations
journal, November 2016

  • Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13682

Controlling the sign of chromatic dispersion in diffractive optics with dielectric metasurfaces
journal, January 2017


A Light-Field Metasurface for High-Resolution Single-Particle Tracking
journal, March 2019


A review on 3D micro-additive manufacturing technologies
journal, November 2012

  • Vaezi, Mohammad; Seitz, Hermann; Yang, Shoufeng
  • The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 67, Issue 5-8
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00170-012-4605-2

Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission
journal, August 2015

  • Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 11, p. 937-943
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.186

Dynamic transmission control based on all-dielectric Huygens metasurfaces
journal, January 2018


3D bioprinting of tissues and organs
journal, August 2014

  • Murphy, Sean V.; Atala, Anthony
  • Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 32, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2958

Asymmetric pores in a silicon membrane acting as massively parallel brownian ratchets
journal, July 2003


Microarchitected Stretching-Dominated Mechanical Metamaterials with Minimal Surface Topologies
journal, June 2018

  • Al-Ketan, Oraib; Rezgui, Rachid; Rowshan, Reza
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.201800029

Fabrication of multi-material 3D structures by the integration of direct laser writing and MEMS stencil patterning
journal, January 2019

  • Reeves, Jeremy B.; Jayne, Rachael K.; Barrett, Lawrence
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8NR09174A

Enantiospecific Optical Enhancement of Chiral Sensing and Separation with Dielectric Metasurfaces
journal, December 2018


Creating Periodic Three-Dimensional Structures by Multibeam Interference of Visible Laser
journal, June 2002

  • Yang, Shu; Megens, Mischa; Aizenberg, Joanna
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 7, p. 2831-2833
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm0256007

Wide bandwidth and high resolution planar filter array based on DBR-metasurface-DBR structures
journal, January 2016

  • Horie, Yu; Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan
  • Optics Express, Vol. 24, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.24.011677

Architected Lattices with High Stiffness and Toughness via Multicore-Shell 3D Printing
journal, January 2018

  • Mueller, Jochen; Raney, Jordan R.; Shea, Kristina
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201705001

Custom 3D printer and resin for 18 μm × 20 μm microfluidic flow channels
journal, January 2017

  • Gong, Hua; Bickham, Bryce P.; Woolley, Adam T.
  • Lab on a Chip, Vol. 17, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7LC00644F

3D Printing of Customized Li-Ion Batteries with Thick Electrodes
journal, March 2018

  • Wei, Teng-Sing; Ahn, Bok Yeop; Grotto, Julia
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201703027

Gold Helix Photonic Metamaterial as Broadband Circular Polarizer
journal, August 2009


Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography
journal, March 2000

  • Campbell, M.; Sharp, D. N.; Harrison, M. T.
  • Nature, Vol. 404, Issue 6773, p. 53-56
  • DOI: 10.1038/35003523

Ultralight Metallic Microlattices
journal, November 2011


Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks
journal, August 2004

  • Jeon, S.; Park, J.-U.; Cirelli, R.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 101, Issue 34, p. 12428-12433
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0403048101

Planar metasurface retroreflector
journal, June 2017


Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces
journal, March 2013

  • Kildishev, A. V.; Boltasseva, A.; Shalaev, V. M.
  • Science, Vol. 339, Issue 6125, p. 1232009-1232009
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1232009

A New Type of Low Density Material: Shellular
journal, August 2015

  • Han, Seung Chul; Lee, Jeong Woo; Kang, Kiju
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501546

MEMS-tunable dielectric metasurface lens
journal, February 2018


Engineering Gyroid-Structured Functional Materials via Templates Discovered in Nature and in the Lab
journal, August 2015


Metalenses at visible wavelengths: past, present, perspectives: Metalenses at visible wavelengths: past, present, perspectives
journal, May 2017


A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering
journal, August 2010


Chiral microstructures (spirals) fabrication by holographic lithography
journal, January 2005

  • Pang, Yee Kwong; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Lee, Hung Fai
  • Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.007615

Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces
journal, May 2016

  • Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11618

Ultrathin van der Waals Metalenses
journal, October 2018


Three dimensional silicon photonic crystals fabricated by two photon phase mask lithography
journal, January 2009

  • Shir, D.; Nelson, E. C.; Chen, Y. C.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3036955

A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control
journal, June 2018


3D Micro- and Nanostructures via Interference Lithography
journal, October 2007

  • Jang, J. -H.; Ullal, C. K.; Maldovan, M.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 17, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700140

Functionalized 3D Architected Materials via Thiol-Michael Addition and Two-Photon Lithography
journal, February 2017

  • Yee, Daryl W.; Schulz, Michael D.; Grubbs, Robert H.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605293

Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses: Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses
journal, November 2016

  • Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir
  • Laser & Photonics Reviews, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201600144

S4 : A free electromagnetic solver for layered periodic structures
journal, October 2012


Multidimensional Architectures for Functional Optical Devices
journal, February 2010

  • Arpin, Kevin A.; Mihi, Agustin; Johnson, Harley T.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200904096

Imaging Performance of Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses
journal, May 2019


Fabricating three-dimensional nanostructures using two photon lithography in a single exposure step
journal, January 2006

  • Jeon, Seokwoo; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Rogers, John A.
  • Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1364/OE.14.002300

Tunable Antireflection Coating to Remove Index-Matching Requirement for Interference Lithography
journal, February 2018

  • Bacon-Brown, Daniel A.; Braun, Paul V.
  • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201701049

Volumetric additive manufacturing via tomographic reconstruction
journal, January 2019

  • Kelly, Brett E.; Bhattacharya, Indrasen; Heidari, Hossein
  • Science, Vol. 363, Issue 6431
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.aau7114

Holographic fabrication of photonic nanostructures for optofluidic integration
journal, January 2008

  • Lee, Seung-Kon; Park, Sung-Gyu; Moon, Jun Hyuk
  • Lab on a Chip, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/b717960j

Three dimensional nanoporous density graded materials formed by optical exposures through conformable phase masks
journal, December 2006

  • Jeon, Seokwoo; Nam, Yun-Suk; Shir, Daniel Jay-Lee
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2405386

Recent advances in high-contrast metastructures, metasurfaces, and photonic crystals
journal, January 2018

  • Qiao, Pengfei; Yang, Weijian; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.
  • Advances in Optics and Photonics, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1364/AOP.10.000180

Fundamentals and Applications of Metasurfaces
journal, March 2017


Angle-multiplexed all-dielectric metasurfaces for broadband molecular fingerprint retrieval
journal, May 2019

  • Leitis, Aleksandrs; Tittl, Andreas; Liu, Mingkai
  • Science Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2871

Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects
journal, March 2015


All fourteen Bravais lattices can be formed by interference of four noncoplanar beams
journal, January 2002


Holographic patterning of high-performance on-chip 3D lithium-ion microbatteries
journal, May 2015

  • Ning, Hailong; Pikul, James H.; Zhang, Runyu
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423889112

Simple Holographic Patterning for High-Aspect-Ratio Three-Dimensional Nanostructures with Large Coverage Area
journal, September 2012

  • Wathuthanthri, Ishan; Liu, Yuyang; Du, Ke
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201814