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Title: Destruction and multiple ionization of PAHs by X-rays in circumnuclear regions of AGNs

Abstract

ABSTRACT The infrared signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are observed in a variety of astrophysical objects, including the circumnuclear medium of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These are sources of highly energetic photons (0.2–10 keV), exposing the PAHs to a harsh environment. In this work, we examined experimentally the photoionization and photostability of naphthalene (C10H8), anthracene (C14H10), 2-methyl-anthracene (C14H9CH3), and pyrene (C16H10) upon interaction with photons of 275, 310, and 2500 eV. The measurements were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using time-of-flight mass-spectrometry. We determined the absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross-sections as a function of the incident photon energy; the production rates of singly, doubly, and triply charged ions; and the molecular half-lives in regions surrounding AGNs. Even considering moderate X-ray optical depth values (τ = 4.45) due to attenuation by the dusty torus, the half-lives are not long enough to account for PAH detection. Our results suggest that a more sophisticated interplay between PAHs and dust grains should be present in order to circumvent molecular destruction. We could not see any significant difference in the half-life values by increasing the size of the PAH carbon backbone, NC, from 10 to 16. However, we show that the multiple photoionization rates aremore » significantly greater than the single ones, irrespective of the AGN source. We suggest that an enrichment of multiply charged ions caused by X-rays can occur in AGNs.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antônio, 43, Rio de Janeiro – RJ 20.080-090, Brazil, Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Centro Nacional de Pesquisas em Energia e Materiais, Polo II de Alta Tecnologia, Campinas – SP 13083-100, Brazil
  2. Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antônio, 43, Rio de Janeiro – RJ 20.080-090, Brazil
  3. Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro – RJ 21941-909, Brazil, Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany
  4. Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro – RJ 21941-972, Brazil
  5. Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antônio, 43, Rio de Janeiro – RJ 20.080-090, Brazil, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo – SP 05508-090, Brazil
  6. Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santa Terezinha, Santo André – SP 09210-580, Brazil
  7. Instituto de Matemática, Estatística e Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Carreiros, Rio Grande – RS 96201-900, Brazil
  8. Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Agronomia, Porto Alegre – RS 91501-970, Brazil
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1568914
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 488 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Monfredini, Thiago, Quitián-Lara, Heidy M., Fantuzzi, Felipe, Wolff, Wania, Mendoza, Edgar, Lago, Alexsandre F., Sales, Dinalva A., Pastoriza, Miriani G., and Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M. Destruction and multiple ionization of PAHs by X-rays in circumnuclear regions of AGNs. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1021.
Monfredini, Thiago, Quitián-Lara, Heidy M., Fantuzzi, Felipe, Wolff, Wania, Mendoza, Edgar, Lago, Alexsandre F., Sales, Dinalva A., Pastoriza, Miriani G., & Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M. Destruction and multiple ionization of PAHs by X-rays in circumnuclear regions of AGNs. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1021.
Monfredini, Thiago, Quitián-Lara, Heidy M., Fantuzzi, Felipe, Wolff, Wania, Mendoza, Edgar, Lago, Alexsandre F., Sales, Dinalva A., Pastoriza, Miriani G., and Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M. Sat . "Destruction and multiple ionization of PAHs by X-rays in circumnuclear regions of AGNs". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1021.
@article{osti_1568914,
title = {Destruction and multiple ionization of PAHs by X-rays in circumnuclear regions of AGNs},
author = {Monfredini, Thiago and Quitián-Lara, Heidy M. and Fantuzzi, Felipe and Wolff, Wania and Mendoza, Edgar and Lago, Alexsandre F. and Sales, Dinalva A. and Pastoriza, Miriani G. and Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT The infrared signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are observed in a variety of astrophysical objects, including the circumnuclear medium of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These are sources of highly energetic photons (0.2–10 keV), exposing the PAHs to a harsh environment. In this work, we examined experimentally the photoionization and photostability of naphthalene (C10H8), anthracene (C14H10), 2-methyl-anthracene (C14H9CH3), and pyrene (C16H10) upon interaction with photons of 275, 310, and 2500 eV. The measurements were performed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using time-of-flight mass-spectrometry. We determined the absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross-sections as a function of the incident photon energy; the production rates of singly, doubly, and triply charged ions; and the molecular half-lives in regions surrounding AGNs. Even considering moderate X-ray optical depth values (τ = 4.45) due to attenuation by the dusty torus, the half-lives are not long enough to account for PAH detection. Our results suggest that a more sophisticated interplay between PAHs and dust grains should be present in order to circumvent molecular destruction. We could not see any significant difference in the half-life values by increasing the size of the PAH carbon backbone, NC, from 10 to 16. However, we show that the multiple photoionization rates are significantly greater than the single ones, irrespective of the AGN source. We suggest that an enrichment of multiply charged ions caused by X-rays can occur in AGNs.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1021},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 488,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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Ionization and Fragmentation of Methane Induced by 40 eV to 480 eV Synchrotron Radiation: From Valence to Beyond Core Electron Ionization
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Spitzer IRS Observations of Seyfert 1.8 and 1.9 Galaxies: A Comparison with Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2
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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Protoplanetary Disks around Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri Stars
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Photodestruction of Relevant Interstellar Molecules in Ice Mixtures
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Indigenous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Circumstellar Graphite Grains from Primitive Meteorites
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Reaction Dynamics in Astrochemistry: Low-Temperature Pathways to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Interstellar Medium
journal, April 2015


A comprehensive photoabsorption, photoionization, and shake-up excitation study of the C 1s cross section of benzene
journal, November 2000

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X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
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Novel charge-transfer electron-detachment reaction for the production of naphthalene dications at thermal energy
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Infrared properties of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars
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SPITZER -IRS HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE 12 μm SEYFERT GALAXIES. II. RESULTS FOR THE COMPLETE DATA SET
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Dissociation of the benzene molecule by ultraviolet and soft X-rays in circumstellar environment
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Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Local Elliptical Galaxies Revealed by the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer
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Mid-Infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. ii. Probing the dust and gas Physics of the Goals Sample
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On the metastability of doubly charged homonuclear diatomics
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A comprehensive analysis of the hard X-ray spectra of bright Seyfert galaxies
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Molecular gas chemistry in AGN: I. The IRAM 30 m survey of NGC 1068
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The spatial extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission in the Herbig star HD 179218
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Destruction of formic acid by soft X-rays in star-forming regions
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Infrared Emission from Interstellar Dust. I. Stochastic Heating of Small Grains
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The PAH emission spectra of Large Magellanic Cloud H II regions
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Investigating the Nuclear Obscuration in Two Types of Seyfert 2 Galaxies
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Size effects on dissociation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations: Laboratory studies and astophysical implications
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The charge alternation concept. Application to cyclic conjugated doubly charged systems
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Gas-phase synthetic pathways to benzene and benzonitrile: a combined microwave and thermochemical investigation
journal, January 2019

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Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Submillimeter Galaxies: Extended star Formation in Massive High-Redshift Galaxies
journal, June 2009

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Straight Edges and the 7.6/6.2 and 8.6/6.2 Intensity Ratios in Reflection Nebulae
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Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules
journal, September 2008


Destruction and survival of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in active galaxies
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Vuv Photo-Processing of pah Cations: Quantitative Study on the Ionization Versus Fragmentation Processes
journal, May 2016

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Chemical bonding in the pentagonal-pyramidal benzene dication and analogous isoelectronic hexa-coordinate species
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The high-Eddington NLS1 Ark 564 has the coolest corona
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