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Title: A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrino Alerts

Abstract

To facilitate multimessenger studies with TeV and PeV astrophysical neutrinos, the IceCube Collaboration has developed a realtime alert system for the highest confidence and best localized neutrino events. In this work we investigate the likelihood of association between realtime high-energy neutrino alerts and explosive optical transients, with a focus on core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe) as candidate neutrino sources. We report results from triggered optical follow-up observations of two IceCube alerts, IC170922A and IC171106A, with Blanco/DECam ($gri$ to 24th magnitude in $$\sim6$$ epochs). Based on a suite of simulated supernova light curves, we develop and validate selection criteria for CC SNe exploding in coincidence with neutrino alerts. The DECam observations are sensitive to CC SNe at redshifts $$z \lesssim 0.3$$. At redshifts $$z \lesssim 0.1$$, our selection criteria reduce background SNe contamination to a level below the predicted signal. For the IC170922A (IC171106A) follow-up observations, we expect that 12.1% (9.5%) of coincident CC SNe at $$z \lesssim 0.3$$ are recovered, and that on average, 0.23 (0.07) unassociated SNe in the 90% containment regions also pass our selection criteria. We find two total candidate CC SNe that are temporally coincident with the neutrino alerts, but none in the 90% containment regions, which is statistically consistent with expected rates of background CC SNe for these observations. Here, given the signal efficiencies and background rates derived from this pilot study, we estimate that to determine whether CC SNe are the dominant contribution to the total TeV-PeV energy IceCube neutrino flux at the $$3\sigma$$ confidence level, DECam observations similar to those of this work would be needed for $$\sim200$$ neutrino alerts, though this number falls to $$\sim60$$ neutrino alerts if redshift information is available for all candidates.

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
DES; IceCube Collaboration; DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1568877
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1575121; OSTI ID: 1606730; OSTI ID: 1631963; OSTI ID: 1697999
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1907.07193; FERMILAB-PUB-19-342-AE; DES-2018-0408
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; oai:inspirehep.net:1744304; TRN: US2100325
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-76SF00515; AST-1138766; AST-1536171; AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357; SC0019193
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 883; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Core-collapse supernovae; Neutrino astronomy; Optical observation

Citation Formats

Morgan, R., Bechtol, K., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Herner, K., Doctor, Z., Scolnic, D., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Franckowiak, A., Neilson, K. N., Kowalski, M., Palmese, A., Swann, E., Thomas, B. P., Vivas, A. K., Drlica-Wagner, A., Garcia, A., Brout, D., Paz-Chinchón, F., Neilsen, E., Diehl, H. T., Soares-Santos, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Cawthon, R., Costanzi, M., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and Weller, J. A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrino Alerts. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a45.
Morgan, R., Bechtol, K., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Herner, K., Doctor, Z., Scolnic, D., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Franckowiak, A., Neilson, K. N., Kowalski, M., Palmese, A., Swann, E., Thomas, B. P., Vivas, A. K., Drlica-Wagner, A., Garcia, A., Brout, D., Paz-Chinchón, F., Neilsen, E., Diehl, H. T., Soares-Santos, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Cawthon, R., Costanzi, M., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., & Weller, J. A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrino Alerts. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a45
Morgan, R., Bechtol, K., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Herner, K., Doctor, Z., Scolnic, D., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Franckowiak, A., Neilson, K. N., Kowalski, M., Palmese, A., Swann, E., Thomas, B. P., Vivas, A. K., Drlica-Wagner, A., Garcia, A., Brout, D., Paz-Chinchón, F., Neilsen, E., Diehl, H. T., Soares-Santos, M., Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Cawthon, R., Costanzi, M., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and Weller, J. Thu . "A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrino Alerts". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a45. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1568877.
@article{osti_1568877,
title = {A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrino Alerts},
author = {Morgan, R. and Bechtol, K. and Kessler, R. and Sako, M. and Herner, K. and Doctor, Z. and Scolnic, D. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Franckowiak, A. and Neilson, K. N. and Kowalski, M. and Palmese, A. and Swann, E. and Thomas, B. P. and Vivas, A. K. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Garcia, A. and Brout, D. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Neilsen, E. and Diehl, H. T. and Soares-Santos, M. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Avila, S. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Cawthon, R. and Costanzi, M. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Doel, P. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Plazas, A. A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Serrano, S. and Smith, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Vikram, V. and Walker, A. R. and Weller, J.},
abstractNote = {To facilitate multimessenger studies with TeV and PeV astrophysical neutrinos, the IceCube Collaboration has developed a realtime alert system for the highest confidence and best localized neutrino events. In this work we investigate the likelihood of association between realtime high-energy neutrino alerts and explosive optical transients, with a focus on core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe) as candidate neutrino sources. We report results from triggered optical follow-up observations of two IceCube alerts, IC170922A and IC171106A, with Blanco/DECam ($gri$ to 24th magnitude in $\sim6$ epochs). Based on a suite of simulated supernova light curves, we develop and validate selection criteria for CC SNe exploding in coincidence with neutrino alerts. The DECam observations are sensitive to CC SNe at redshifts $z \lesssim 0.3$. At redshifts $z \lesssim 0.1$, our selection criteria reduce background SNe contamination to a level below the predicted signal. For the IC170922A (IC171106A) follow-up observations, we expect that 12.1% (9.5%) of coincident CC SNe at $z \lesssim 0.3$ are recovered, and that on average, 0.23 (0.07) unassociated SNe in the 90% containment regions also pass our selection criteria. We find two total candidate CC SNe that are temporally coincident with the neutrino alerts, but none in the 90% containment regions, which is statistically consistent with expected rates of background CC SNe for these observations. Here, given the signal efficiencies and background rates derived from this pilot study, we estimate that to determine whether CC SNe are the dominant contribution to the total TeV-PeV energy IceCube neutrino flux at the $3\sigma$ confidence level, DECam observations similar to those of this work would be needed for $\sim200$ neutrino alerts, though this number falls to $\sim60$ neutrino alerts if redshift information is available for all candidates.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab3a45},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 883,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A DECam Search for Explosive Optical Transients Associated with IceCube Neutrinos
    text, January 2019