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Title: The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S 5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science

Abstract

ABSTRACT We introduce the southern stellar stream spectroscopy survey (S 5), an on-going program to map the kinematics and chemistry of stellar streams in the southern hemisphere. The initial focus of S 5 has been spectroscopic observations of recently identified streams within the footprint of the dark energy survey (DES), with the eventual goal of surveying streams across the entire southern sky. Stellar streams are composed of material that has been tidally striped from dwarf galaxies and globular clusters and hence are excellent dynamical probes of the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, as well as providing a detailed snapshot of its accretion history. Observing with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope’s 2-degree-Field fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph, and combining the precise photometry of DES DR1 with the superb proper motions from Gaia DR2, allows us to conduct an efficient spectroscopic survey to map these stellar streams. So far S 5 has mapped nine DES streams and three streams outside of DES; the former are the first spectroscopic observations of these recently discovered streams. In addition to the stream survey, we use spare fibres to undertake a Milky Way halo survey and a low-redshift galaxy survey. This paper presents an overviewmore » of the S 5 program, describing the scientific motivation for the survey, target selection, observation strategy, data reduction, and survey validation. Lastly, we describe early science results on stellar streams and Milky Way halo stars drawn from the survey. Updates on S 5, including future public data releases, can be found at http://s5collab.github.io.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12];  [13];  [13]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [14];  [7];  [15]; ORCiD logo [16]; ORCiD logo [4] more »;  [17];  [18]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [22];  [12];  [8]; ORCiD logo [21]; ORCiD logo [23];  [24];  [13] « less
  1. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101, USA; Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA; Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  2. McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  3. Department of Physics & Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; Macquarie University Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics & Astrophotonics, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
  4. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
  5. Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA; Australian Astronomical Optics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park, NSW 2113, Australia
  6. School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
  7. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
  8. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA; Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  9. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA; Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
  10. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
  11. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  12. Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia
  13. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  14. Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
  15. Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
  16. School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Australia
  17. Australian Astronomical Optics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park, NSW 2113, Australia
  18. Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue Madison, WI 53706, USA
  19. Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, NL-9700AV Groningen, the Netherlands
  20. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  21. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Australia
  22. School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
  23. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  24. Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
S5 Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1568863
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1572589
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1907.09481; FERMILAB-PUB-19-290-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; oai:inspirehep.net:1750235
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 490; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Li, T. S., Koposov, S. E., Zucker, D. B., Lewis, G. F., Kuehn, K., Simpson, J. D., Ji, A. P., Shipp, N., Mao, Y-Y, Geha, M., Pace, A. B., Mackey, A. D., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Da Costa, G. S., Erkal, D., Simon, J. D., Mould, J. R., Martell, S. L., Wan, Z., De Silva, G. M., Bechtol, K., Balbinot, E., Belokurov, V., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Casey, A. R., Cullinane, L., Drlica-Wagner, A., Sharma, S., Vivas, A. K., Wechsler, R. H., and Yanny, B. The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2731.
Li, T. S., Koposov, S. E., Zucker, D. B., Lewis, G. F., Kuehn, K., Simpson, J. D., Ji, A. P., Shipp, N., Mao, Y-Y, Geha, M., Pace, A. B., Mackey, A. D., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Da Costa, G. S., Erkal, D., Simon, J. D., Mould, J. R., Martell, S. L., Wan, Z., De Silva, G. M., Bechtol, K., Balbinot, E., Belokurov, V., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Casey, A. R., Cullinane, L., Drlica-Wagner, A., Sharma, S., Vivas, A. K., Wechsler, R. H., & Yanny, B. The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2731.
Li, T. S., Koposov, S. E., Zucker, D. B., Lewis, G. F., Kuehn, K., Simpson, J. D., Ji, A. P., Shipp, N., Mao, Y-Y, Geha, M., Pace, A. B., Mackey, A. D., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Da Costa, G. S., Erkal, D., Simon, J. D., Mould, J. R., Martell, S. L., Wan, Z., De Silva, G. M., Bechtol, K., Balbinot, E., Belokurov, V., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Casey, A. R., Cullinane, L., Drlica-Wagner, A., Sharma, S., Vivas, A. K., Wechsler, R. H., and Yanny, B. Thu . "The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2731.
@article{osti_1568863,
title = {The southern stellar stream spectroscopic survey (S5): Overview, target selection, data reduction, validation, and early science},
author = {Li, T. S. and Koposov, S. E. and Zucker, D. B. and Lewis, G. F. and Kuehn, K. and Simpson, J. D. and Ji, A. P. and Shipp, N. and Mao, Y-Y and Geha, M. and Pace, A. B. and Mackey, A. D. and Allam, S. and Tucker, D. L. and Da Costa, G. S. and Erkal, D. and Simon, J. D. and Mould, J. R. and Martell, S. L. and Wan, Z. and De Silva, G. M. and Bechtol, K. and Balbinot, E. and Belokurov, V. and Bland-Hawthorn, J. and Casey, A. R. and Cullinane, L. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Sharma, S. and Vivas, A. K. and Wechsler, R. H. and Yanny, B.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT We introduce the southern stellar stream spectroscopy survey (S5), an on-going program to map the kinematics and chemistry of stellar streams in the southern hemisphere. The initial focus of S5 has been spectroscopic observations of recently identified streams within the footprint of the dark energy survey (DES), with the eventual goal of surveying streams across the entire southern sky. Stellar streams are composed of material that has been tidally striped from dwarf galaxies and globular clusters and hence are excellent dynamical probes of the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, as well as providing a detailed snapshot of its accretion history. Observing with the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope’s 2-degree-Field fibre positioner and AAOmega spectrograph, and combining the precise photometry of DES DR1 with the superb proper motions from Gaia DR2, allows us to conduct an efficient spectroscopic survey to map these stellar streams. So far S5 has mapped nine DES streams and three streams outside of DES; the former are the first spectroscopic observations of these recently discovered streams. In addition to the stream survey, we use spare fibres to undertake a Milky Way halo survey and a low-redshift galaxy survey. This paper presents an overview of the S5 program, describing the scientific motivation for the survey, target selection, observation strategy, data reduction, and survey validation. Lastly, we describe early science results on stellar streams and Milky Way halo stars drawn from the survey. Updates on S5, including future public data releases, can be found at http://s5collab.github.io.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2731},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 490,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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A Two Micron All Sky Survey View of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy. II. Swope Telescope Spectroscopy of M Giant Stars in the Dynamically Cold Sagittarius Tidal Stream
journal, July 2004

  • Majewski, Steven R.; Kunkel, William E.; Law, David R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 128, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421372

The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)
journal, August 2017

  • Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa784d

Fourteen candidate RR Lyrae star streams in the inner Galaxy
journal, November 2017

  • Mateu, Cecilia; Read, Justin I.; Kawata, Daisuke
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 474, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2937

Multi-object spectroscopy field configuration by simulated annealing
journal, October 2006


The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline
journal, May 2018

  • Morganson, E.; Gruendl, R. A.; Menanteau, F.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 130, Issue 989
  • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/aab4ef

Subpercent Photometry: Faint DA White Dwarf Spectrophotometric Standards for Astrophysical Observatories
journal, March 2019

  • Narayan, Gautham; Matheson, Thomas; Saha, Abhijit
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 241, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab0557

Proper Motions of Milky Way Ultra-faint Satellites with Gaia DR2 × DES DR1
journal, April 2019


The Astropy Project: Building an Open-science Project and Status of the v2.0 Core Package
journal, August 2018

  • Price-Whelan, A. M.; Sipőcz, B. M.; Günther, H. M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 156, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aabc4f

The Gaia mission
journal, November 2016


Dynamics of stream–subhalo interactions
journal, January 2016

  • Sanders, Jason L.; Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 457, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw232

The unWISE Catalog: Two Billion Infrared Sources from Five Years of WISE Imaging
journal, February 2019

  • Schlafly, Edward F.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Green, Gregory M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aafbea

Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
journal, June 1998

  • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305772

The stellar content of the Hamburg/ESO survey: V. The metallicity distribution function of the Galactic halo
journal, September 2009


The Nature and Orbit of the Ophiuchus Stream
journal, August 2015


Long-term stability of fibre-optic transmission for multi-object spectroscopy★
journal, October 2012

  • Sharp, R.; Brough, S.; Cannon, R. D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 428, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts044

Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey
journal, July 2018


Proper Motions of Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey
journal, October 2019


The GALAH survey: relative throughputs of the 2dF fibre positioner and the HERMES spectrograph from stellar targets
journal, March 2016

  • Simpson, Jeffrey D.; De Silva, G. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 459, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw746

The Abundances of Neutron-Capture Species in the very Metal-Poor Globular Cluster m15: a Uniform Analysis of red Giant Branch and red Horizontal Branch Stars
journal, April 2011

  • Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Kraft, Robert P.; Sneden, Christopher
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 141, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/6/175

The NumPy Array: A Structure for Efficient Numerical Computation
journal, March 2011

  • van der Walt, Stéfan; Colbert, S. Chris; Varoquaux, Gaël
  • Computing in Science & Engineering, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/MCSE.2011.37

Stellar streams as probes of dark halo mass and morphology: a Bayesian reconstruction: Stellar streams as dark halo probes
journal, September 2011


IDENTIFYING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS USING THE z FILTER
journal, March 2012


The SIMBAD astronomical database: The CDS reference database for astronomical objects
journal, April 2000

  • Wenger, M.; Ochsenbein, F.; Egret, D.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 143, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1051/aas:2000332

On the Effect of Fraunhofer Lines on u, b, V Measurements.
journal, January 1962

  • Wildey, R. L.; Burbidge, E. M.; Sandage, A. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 135
  • DOI: 10.1086/147251

SkyMapper Southern Survey: First Data Release (DR1)
journal, January 2018

  • Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher A.; Luvaul, Lance C.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 35
  • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2018.5

The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (Wise): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance
journal, November 2010


Identification of A‐colored Stars and Structure in the Halo of the Milky Way from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Commissioning Data
journal, September 2000

  • Yanny, Brian; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Kent, Steve
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 540, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/309386

The most Metal-Poor Stars. iii. the Metallicity Distribution Function and Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Fraction, ,
journal, December 2012


Clumpy Streams from Clumpy Halos: Detecting Missing Satellites with cold Stellar Structures
journal, March 2011

  • Yoon, Joo Heon; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hogg, David W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 731, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/58

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Technical Summary
journal, September 2000

  • York, Donald G.; Adelman, J.; Anderson, Jr., John E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/301513

OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results
journal, July 2015

  • Yuan, Fang; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1507

The GALAH survey: accurate radial velocities and library of observed stellar template spectra
journal, August 2018

  • Zwitter, Tomaž; Kos, Janez; Chiavassa, Andrea
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2293