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Title: Human Lacrimal Production Rates from Modified Schirmer-Tear Test

Abstract

Significance: A simple methodology is presented to quantify basal tear production with a modified Schirmer-tear test.Purpose: We introduce a simple clinical procedure to measure quantitative basal tear-production flowrates, QL, from a modified Schirmer-tear test (STT). Methods: Eight healthy subjects aged at least 18 years underwent modified STTs on both eyes for two visits each. Schirmer strips were sheathed with transparent tape before insertion. Topical anesthetic minimized reflex tearing. Wetting lengths were measured every 30 s for 5 min; QL was calculated from the linear slope of wetting length versus time. Determination of QL requires mass-balance equations on the tear prism and Schirmer strip with strip imbibition kinetics obeying Darcy and Young-Laplace laws. Results: Basal tear production rates varied from essentially 0 to about 2 μl/min. With some exceptions, right and left eyes showed similar tear production rates. Conclusions: By following the modified STT, QL is established with minimal additional effort over a standard Schirmer test. We predict and observe four different subtypes of imbibition kinetics depending on how short or long the time is for first appearance of the wetting front and on how fast or slow is tear production. For slow lacrimal production rates, the standard 5-min wetting lengthmore » does not correlate with basal tear production.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1567120
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optometry and Vision Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 95; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1040-5488
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Li, Songhao, Kim, Young Hyun, Li, Wing, Lin, Meng C., and Radke, Clayton J. Human Lacrimal Production Rates from Modified Schirmer-Tear Test. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001196.
Li, Songhao, Kim, Young Hyun, Li, Wing, Lin, Meng C., & Radke, Clayton J. Human Lacrimal Production Rates from Modified Schirmer-Tear Test. United States. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001196.
Li, Songhao, Kim, Young Hyun, Li, Wing, Lin, Meng C., and Radke, Clayton J. Mon . "Human Lacrimal Production Rates from Modified Schirmer-Tear Test". United States. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001196. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1567120.
@article{osti_1567120,
title = {Human Lacrimal Production Rates from Modified Schirmer-Tear Test},
author = {Li, Songhao and Kim, Young Hyun and Li, Wing and Lin, Meng C. and Radke, Clayton J.},
abstractNote = {Significance: A simple methodology is presented to quantify basal tear production with a modified Schirmer-tear test.Purpose: We introduce a simple clinical procedure to measure quantitative basal tear-production flowrates, QL, from a modified Schirmer-tear test (STT). Methods: Eight healthy subjects aged at least 18 years underwent modified STTs on both eyes for two visits each. Schirmer strips were sheathed with transparent tape before insertion. Topical anesthetic minimized reflex tearing. Wetting lengths were measured every 30 s for 5 min; QL was calculated from the linear slope of wetting length versus time. Determination of QL requires mass-balance equations on the tear prism and Schirmer strip with strip imbibition kinetics obeying Darcy and Young-Laplace laws. Results: Basal tear production rates varied from essentially 0 to about 2 μl/min. With some exceptions, right and left eyes showed similar tear production rates. Conclusions: By following the modified STT, QL is established with minimal additional effort over a standard Schirmer test. We predict and observe four different subtypes of imbibition kinetics depending on how short or long the time is for first appearance of the wetting front and on how fast or slow is tear production. For slow lacrimal production rates, the standard 5-min wetting length does not correlate with basal tear production.},
doi = {10.1097/OPX.0000000000001196},
journal = {Optometry and Vision Science},
number = 4,
volume = 95,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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