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Title: Brown dwarf census with the Dark Energy Survey year 3 data and the thin disc scale height of early L types

Abstract

ABSTRACT In this paper we present a catalogue of 11 745 brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from L0 to T9, photometrically classified using data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) year 3 release matched to the Vista Hemisphere Survey (VHS) DR3 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data, covering ≈2400 deg2 up to iAB = 22. The classification method follows the same phototype method previously applied to SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE data. The most significant difference comes from the use of DES data instead of SDSS, which allow us to classify almost an order of magnitude more brown dwarfs than any previous search and reaching distances beyond 400 pc for the earliest types. Next, we also present and validate the GalmodBD simulation, which produces brown dwarf number counts as a function of structural parameters with realistic photometric properties of a given survey. We use this simulation to estimate the completeness and purity of our photometric LT catalogue down to iAB = 22, as well as to compare to the observed number of LT types. We put constraints on the thin disc scale height for the early L (L0–L3) population to be around 450 pc, in agreement with previous findings. For completeness, we also publish in amore » separate table a catalogue of 20 863 M dwarfs that passed our colour cut with spectral types greater than M6. Both the LT and the late M catalogues are found at DES release page https://des.ncsa.illinois.edu/releases/other/y3-mlt.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [3];  [10];  [5];  [11];  [12];  [13]; ORCiD logo [11];  [14];  [15];  [16];  [17] more »;  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [10];  [21];  [17];  [5];  [13];  [22];  [5];  [17];  [23]; ORCiD logo [24];  [16];  [19];  [13];  [25];  [21];  [19];  [26];  [27];  [28]; ORCiD logo [29];  [30];  [31];  [32];  [12];  [33] « less
  1. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense, 40, 28040, Madrid, Spain, Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil, Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  2. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil, Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil
  3. Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil
  4. Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
  5. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil, Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil
  6. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA, Black Hole Initiative at Harvard University, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  7. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  8. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK, Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  9. Physics Department, 2320 Chamberlin Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706-1390, USA, LSST, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
  10. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  11. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
  12. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  13. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  14. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  15. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  16. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  17. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  18. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  19. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense, 40, 28040, Madrid, Spain
  20. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  21. Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), E-08034 Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
  22. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  23. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain
  24. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  25. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  26. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  27. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia – LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400, Brazil, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP, Brazil
  28. Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
  29. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  30. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  31. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  32. Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA
  33. (
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1566910
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 489 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Carnero Rosell, A., Santiago, B., dal Ponte, M., Burningham, B., da Costa, L. N., James, D. J., Marshall, J. L., McMahon, R. G., Bechtol, K., De Paris, L., Li, T., Pieres, A., García-Bellido, J., Abbott, T. M. C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bernstein, G. M., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., De Vicente, J., Drlica-Wagner, A., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hollowood, D. L., Maia, M. A. G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Soares-Santos, M., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and DES Collaboration). Brown dwarf census with the Dark Energy Survey year 3 data and the thin disc scale height of early L types. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2398.
Carnero Rosell, A., Santiago, B., dal Ponte, M., Burningham, B., da Costa, L. N., James, D. J., Marshall, J. L., McMahon, R. G., Bechtol, K., De Paris, L., Li, T., Pieres, A., García-Bellido, J., Abbott, T. M. C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bernstein, G. M., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., De Vicente, J., Drlica-Wagner, A., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hollowood, D. L., Maia, M. A. G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Soares-Santos, M., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., & DES Collaboration). Brown dwarf census with the Dark Energy Survey year 3 data and the thin disc scale height of early L types. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2398.
Carnero Rosell, A., Santiago, B., dal Ponte, M., Burningham, B., da Costa, L. N., James, D. J., Marshall, J. L., McMahon, R. G., Bechtol, K., De Paris, L., Li, T., Pieres, A., García-Bellido, J., Abbott, T. M. C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bernstein, G. M., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., De Vicente, J., Drlica-Wagner, A., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hollowood, D. L., Maia, M. A. G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Sobreira, F., Soares-Santos, M., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and DES Collaboration). Thu . "Brown dwarf census with the Dark Energy Survey year 3 data and the thin disc scale height of early L types". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2398.
@article{osti_1566910,
title = {Brown dwarf census with the Dark Energy Survey year 3 data and the thin disc scale height of early L types},
author = {Carnero Rosell, A. and Santiago, B. and dal Ponte, M. and Burningham, B. and da Costa, L. N. and James, D. J. and Marshall, J. L. and McMahon, R. G. and Bechtol, K. and De Paris, L. and Li, T. and Pieres, A. and García-Bellido, J. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Annis, J. and Avila, S. and Bernstein, G. M. and Brooks, D. and Burke, D. L. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and De Vicente, J. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Maia, M. A. G. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Plazas, A. A. and Roodman, A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Sobreira, F. and Soares-Santos, M. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Vikram, V. and Walker, A. R. and DES Collaboration)},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT In this paper we present a catalogue of 11 745 brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from L0 to T9, photometrically classified using data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) year 3 release matched to the Vista Hemisphere Survey (VHS) DR3 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data, covering ≈2400 deg2 up to iAB = 22. The classification method follows the same phototype method previously applied to SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE data. The most significant difference comes from the use of DES data instead of SDSS, which allow us to classify almost an order of magnitude more brown dwarfs than any previous search and reaching distances beyond 400 pc for the earliest types. Next, we also present and validate the GalmodBD simulation, which produces brown dwarf number counts as a function of structural parameters with realistic photometric properties of a given survey. We use this simulation to estimate the completeness and purity of our photometric LT catalogue down to iAB = 22, as well as to compare to the observed number of LT types. We put constraints on the thin disc scale height for the early L (L0–L3) population to be around 450 pc, in agreement with previous findings. For completeness, we also publish in a separate table a catalogue of 20 863 M dwarfs that passed our colour cut with spectral types greater than M6. Both the LT and the late M catalogues are found at DES release page https://des.ncsa.illinois.edu/releases/other/y3-mlt.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2398},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 489,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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journal, July 1980

  • Coleman, G. D.; Wu, C. -C.; Weedman, D. W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 43
  • DOI: 10.1086/190674

Photometric brown-dwarf classification: II. A homogeneous sample of 1361 L and T dwarfs brighter than
journal, April 2016


47 new T dwarfs from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey: 47 T dwarfs
journal, May 2010


A Comparison of Near-Infrared Photometry and Spectra for y Dwarfs with a new Generation of cool Cloudy Models
journal, January 2013


PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM NEOWISE: AN ENHANCEMENT TO THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER FOR SOLAR SYSTEM SCIENCE
journal, March 2011


The extremely red L dwarf ULAS J222711−004547 – dominated by dust
journal, January 2014

  • Marocco, F.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Lucas, P. W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2463

The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (Wise): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance
journal, November 2010


A Unified Near‐Infrared Spectral Classification Scheme for T Dwarfs
journal, February 2006

  • Burgasser, Adam J.; Geballe, T. R.; Leggett, S. K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 637, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498563

37 new T-Type Brown Dwarfs in the Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey
journal, May 2011


Discovery of Two Nearby Peculiar L Dwarfs from the 2MASS Proper‐Motion Survey: Young or Metal‐Rich?
journal, October 2008

  • Looper, Dagny L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/591025

The Formation and Early Evolution of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs
journal, September 2012


The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf
journal, July 2016

  • Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 826, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/826/2/L17

Primeval very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs – II. The most metal-poor substellar object
journal, February 2017

  • Zhang 张曾华, Z. H.; Homeier, D.; Pinfield, D. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx350