DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Spontaneous Magnetic Superdomain Wall Fluctuations in an Artificial Antiferromagnet

Abstract

A team of researchers spanning the University of Kentucky and Lawrence Berkeley, Argonne, and Brookhaven National Laboratories has observed new behavior in an artificial spin system. The team fabricated a square lattice of permalloy nanomagnets and found that it orders into an antiferromagnetic superdomains below ≈425K. The system fluctuates until it cools to slightly above room temperature. These fluctuations are associated with the nucleation, annihilation, and motion of superdomain walls, the presence of which was confirmed using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Photoemission Electron Microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). The team used coherent soft X-ray scattering with X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to study the dynamics of these superdomain walls. They found that the superdomain wall motion changes in nature from diffusive to ballistic at a temperature below the antiferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. When cooled further, the superdomain walls exponentially slow down and eventually freeze. These finding show that superdomain fluctuations play an important role in the equilibrium behavior of square artificial spin lattices. The same methods can be used to study dynamics and disorder in a wide variety of artificial spin systems.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)
  2. Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)
  3. Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  6. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); London Centre for Nanotechnology (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1566874
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1668641; OSTI ID: 1773852; OSTI ID: 1775359
Report Number(s):
BNL-212118-2019-JAAM; BNL-219861-2020-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; SC0016519; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Antiferromagnetism; Dipolar interaction; Domain walls; Dynamics of phase separation; Magnetic phase transitions; Magnetization dynamics; nanomagnetics; X-ray scattering; artificial spin ice

Citation Formats

Chen, X.  M., Farmer, B., Woods, J.  S., Dhuey, S., Hu, W., Mazzoli, C., Wilkins, S. B., Chopdekar, R.  V., Scholl, A., Robinson, I. K., De Long, L. E., Roy, S., and Hastings, J. T. Spontaneous Magnetic Superdomain Wall Fluctuations in an Artificial Antiferromagnet. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.123.197202.
Chen, X.  M., Farmer, B., Woods, J.  S., Dhuey, S., Hu, W., Mazzoli, C., Wilkins, S. B., Chopdekar, R.  V., Scholl, A., Robinson, I. K., De Long, L. E., Roy, S., & Hastings, J. T. Spontaneous Magnetic Superdomain Wall Fluctuations in an Artificial Antiferromagnet. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.123.197202
Chen, X.  M., Farmer, B., Woods, J.  S., Dhuey, S., Hu, W., Mazzoli, C., Wilkins, S. B., Chopdekar, R.  V., Scholl, A., Robinson, I. K., De Long, L. E., Roy, S., and Hastings, J. T. Wed . "Spontaneous Magnetic Superdomain Wall Fluctuations in an Artificial Antiferromagnet". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.123.197202. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1566874.
@article{osti_1566874,
title = {Spontaneous Magnetic Superdomain Wall Fluctuations in an Artificial Antiferromagnet},
author = {Chen, X.  M. and Farmer, B. and Woods, J.  S. and Dhuey, S. and Hu, W. and Mazzoli, C. and Wilkins, S. B. and Chopdekar, R.  V. and Scholl, A. and Robinson, I. K. and De Long, L. E. and Roy, S. and Hastings, J. T.},
abstractNote = {A team of researchers spanning the University of Kentucky and Lawrence Berkeley, Argonne, and Brookhaven National Laboratories has observed new behavior in an artificial spin system. The team fabricated a square lattice of permalloy nanomagnets and found that it orders into an antiferromagnetic superdomains below ≈425K. The system fluctuates until it cools to slightly above room temperature. These fluctuations are associated with the nucleation, annihilation, and motion of superdomain walls, the presence of which was confirmed using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Photoemission Electron Microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). The team used coherent soft X-ray scattering with X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to study the dynamics of these superdomain walls. They found that the superdomain wall motion changes in nature from diffusive to ballistic at a temperature below the antiferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. When cooled further, the superdomain walls exponentially slow down and eventually freeze. These finding show that superdomain fluctuations play an important role in the equilibrium behavior of square artificial spin lattices. The same methods can be used to study dynamics and disorder in a wide variety of artificial spin systems.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.123.197202},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 19,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Artificial Square Ice and Related Dipolar Nanoarrays
journal, June 2006


Classification of super domains and super domain walls in permalloy antidot lattices
journal, July 2011


Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices
journal, February 2018


Computational logic with square rings of nanomagnets
journal, May 2018


Magnetic-charge ordering and phase transitions in monopole-conserved square spin ice
journal, October 2015

  • Xie, Y. -L.; Du, Z. -Z.; Yan, Z. -B.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep15875

Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann freezing of a thermally fluctuating artificial spin ice probed by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy
journal, March 2017


Crystallites of magnetic charges in artificial spin ice
journal, August 2013

  • Zhang, Sheng; Gilbert, Ian; Nisoli, Cristiano
  • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7464
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12399

Domain Texture of the Orthorhombic Phase of La2−xBaxCuO4
journal, August 2019


Thermal ground-state ordering and elementary excitations in artificial magnetic square ice
journal, November 2010

  • Morgan, Jason P.; Stein, Aaron; Langridge, Sean
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1853

Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid
journal, February 2010

  • Neumann, P.; Kolesov, R.; Naydenov, B.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1536

Thermal Phase Transitions in Artificial Spin Ice
journal, May 2013


Ground State Lost but Degeneracy Found: The Effective Thermodynamics of Artificial Spin Ice
journal, May 2007


Jamming Behavior of Domains in a Spiral Antiferromagnetic System
journal, May 2013


Transport properties of glass-forming liquids suggest that dynamic crossover temperature is as important as the glass transition temperature
journal, December 2010

  • Mallamace, F.; Branca, C.; Corsaro, C.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 107, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1015340107

Coulomb spin liquid in anion-disordered pyrochlore Tb2Hf2O7
journal, October 2017


Gibbsianizing nonequilibrium dynamics of artificial spin ice and other spin systems
journal, April 2012


Thermal fluctuations in artificial spin ice
journal, June 2014

  • Kapaklis, Vassilios; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Farhan, Alan
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 7, p. 514-519
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.104

Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice
journal, November 2016

  • Andersson, M. S.; Pappas, S. D.; Stopfel, H.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep37097

Continuous-time random-walk model of electron transport in nanocrystalline TiO 2 electrodes
journal, June 1999


Nanoparticle Motion within Glassy Polymer Melts
journal, February 2009


Exploring hyper-cubic energy landscapes in thermally active finite artificial spin-ice systems
journal, May 2013

  • Farhan, A.; Derlet, P. M.; Kleibert, A.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2613

Topological frustration of artificial spin ice
journal, January 2017

  • Drisko, Jasper; Marsh, Thomas; Cumings, John
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14009

Direct Observation of Thermal Relaxation in Artificial Spin Ice
journal, August 2013


Length scale dependence of dynamical heterogeneity in a colloidal fractal gel
journal, December 2006


The frustration-based approach of supercooled liquids and the glass transition: a review and critical assessment
journal, December 2005


Sub-nanosecond signal propagation in anisotropy-engineered nanomagnetic logic chains
journal, March 2015

  • Gu, Zheng; Nowakowski, Mark E.; Carlton, David B.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7466

Dynamics of artificial spin ice: a continuous honeycomb network
journal, March 2012


Spin liquids in frustrated magnets
journal, March 2010


Disorder-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid in Spin Ice Pyrochlores
journal, February 2017


Dynamics of Nanoparticles in a Supercooled Liquid
journal, February 2008


Remarkable Stability of Charge Density Wave Order in La 1.875 Ba 0.125 CuO 4
journal, October 2016


Artificial Spin-Ice and Vertex Models
journal, January 2017


Dirac Strings and Magnetic Monopoles in the Spin Ice Dy2Ti2O7
journal, September 2009


Real-space observation of emergent magnetic monopoles and associated Dirac strings in artificial kagome spin ice
journal, October 2010

  • Mengotti, Elena; Heyderman, Laura J.; Rodríguez, Arantxa Fraile
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1794

Magnetic diffuse scattering in artificial kagome spin ice
journal, June 2016


Development of a compact fast CCD camera and resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation for time-resolved pump-probe experiments
journal, July 2011

  • Doering, D.; Chuang, Y. -D.; Andresen, N.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 82, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3609862

Engineering Relaxation Pathways in Building Blocks of Artificial Spin Ice for Computation
journal, May 2019


The random walk's guide to anomalous diffusion: a fractional dynamics approach
journal, December 2000


Anomalous diffusion in disordered media: Statistical mechanisms, models and physical applications
journal, November 1990


Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice
journal, May 2016


Realization of ground state in artificial kagome spin ice via topological defect-driven magnetic writing
journal, November 2017


Universal Aging Features in the Restructuring of Fractal Colloidal Gels
journal, March 2000


Melting artificial spin ice
journal, March 2012


Novel Magnetic Phases: Spin Solid versus Magnetic Charge Ordered State in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice of Connected Elements (Adv. Sci. 4/2018)
journal, April 2018

  • Glavic, Artur; Summers, Brock; Dahal, Ashutosh
  • Advanced Science, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/advs.201870024

Random Walks on Lattices. II
journal, February 1965

  • Montroll, Elliott W.; Weiss, George H.
  • Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1704269

Direct observation of electronic-liquid-crystal phase transitions and their microscopic origin in La1/3Ca2/3MnO3
journal, November 2016

  • Tao, J.; Sun, K.; Yin, W. -G.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep37624

Thermal fluctuation of fine ferromagnetic particles
journal, September 1979


Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice
journal, October 2015

  • Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3520

Topological frustration of artificial spin ice
text, January 2017

  • Drisko, Jasper; Marsh, Thomas; Cumings, John
  • Digital Repository at the University of Maryland
  • DOI: 10.13016/m2q23r08z

Magnetic diffuse scattering in artificial kagome spin ice
text, January 2016

  • Sendetskyi, Oles; Anghinolfi, Luca; Scagnoli, Valerio
  • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
  • DOI: 10.17863/cam.241

Melting artificial spin ice
text, January 2011


Dynamics of artificial spin ice: continuous honeycomb network
text, January 2011


Thermal phase transitions in Artificial Spin-Ice
text, January 2013


Sub-nanosecond signal propagation in anisotropy engineered nanomagnetic logic chains
text, January 2014


Thermally induced magnetic relaxation in square artificial spin ice
text, January 2016


Coulomb spin liquid in anion-disordered pyrochlore Tb$_2$Hf$_2$O$_7$
text, January 2016


Artificial spin ice and vertex models
text, January 2017


Artificial square ice and related dipolar nanoarrays
text, January 2006