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Title: In Situ Measurement of Lithium-Ion Cell Internal Temperatures during Extreme Fast Charging

Abstract

Here we report an investigation of Li-ion cell thermal behaviors during extreme fast charging by in situ measurement of its internal temperatures. An experimental 2 Ah LiNi 0.6Co 0.2Mn 0.2O 2/graphite pouch cell with embedded micro-thermocouples was developed and charged as fast as 7C at room temperature. With forced convection air cooling, the cell core temperature increased by 22.5°C in 5 minutes during 7C charging while it increased by less than 1.5°C during 1C charging. The difference between cell core temperature and surface temperature was up to 3.4°C during 7C charging while less than 0.2°C during 1C charging. We estimated heat generation of the cell and found that the average heat generation rate during 7C constant current charging was 34 times higher than that during 1C charging. The temperature gradient was smaller but the temperature increase was higher with natural air convection than those with forced convection. A temporary voltage drop phenomenon was observed during 7C charging with forced convection and 5C charging with natural convection, in similar SOC range from ~22% to ~40%. The phenomenon can be attributed to drop of cell resistance with rapid temperature rise and slow increase of open circuit voltage in the SOC range.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division
  3. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Inst.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1566276
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1566964
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 166; Journal Issue: 14; Conference: 236. Electrochemical Society Meeting (ECS) Meeting of the Society, Atlanta, GA (United States), 13-17 Oct 2019; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Batteries - Lithium; Extreme Fast Charging; Internal Temperatures; Lithium-Ion Cell

Citation Formats

Huang, Shan, Wu, Xianyang, Cavalheiro, Gabriel M., Du, Xiaoniu, Liu, Bangzhi, Du, Zhijia, and Zhang, Guangsheng. In Situ Measurement of Lithium-Ion Cell Internal Temperatures during Extreme Fast Charging. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0441914jes.
Huang, Shan, Wu, Xianyang, Cavalheiro, Gabriel M., Du, Xiaoniu, Liu, Bangzhi, Du, Zhijia, & Zhang, Guangsheng. In Situ Measurement of Lithium-Ion Cell Internal Temperatures during Extreme Fast Charging. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0441914jes.
Huang, Shan, Wu, Xianyang, Cavalheiro, Gabriel M., Du, Xiaoniu, Liu, Bangzhi, Du, Zhijia, and Zhang, Guangsheng. Wed . "In Situ Measurement of Lithium-Ion Cell Internal Temperatures during Extreme Fast Charging". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0441914jes.
@article{osti_1566276,
title = {In Situ Measurement of Lithium-Ion Cell Internal Temperatures during Extreme Fast Charging},
author = {Huang, Shan and Wu, Xianyang and Cavalheiro, Gabriel M. and Du, Xiaoniu and Liu, Bangzhi and Du, Zhijia and Zhang, Guangsheng},
abstractNote = {Here we report an investigation of Li-ion cell thermal behaviors during extreme fast charging by in situ measurement of its internal temperatures. An experimental 2 Ah LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite pouch cell with embedded micro-thermocouples was developed and charged as fast as 7C at room temperature. With forced convection air cooling, the cell core temperature increased by 22.5°C in 5 minutes during 7C charging while it increased by less than 1.5°C during 1C charging. The difference between cell core temperature and surface temperature was up to 3.4°C during 7C charging while less than 0.2°C during 1C charging. We estimated heat generation of the cell and found that the average heat generation rate during 7C constant current charging was 34 times higher than that during 1C charging. The temperature gradient was smaller but the temperature increase was higher with natural air convection than those with forced convection. A temporary voltage drop phenomenon was observed during 7C charging with forced convection and 5C charging with natural convection, in similar SOC range from ~22% to ~40%. The phenomenon can be attributed to drop of cell resistance with rapid temperature rise and slow increase of open circuit voltage in the SOC range.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0441914jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 14,
volume = 166,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1149/2.0441914jes

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Works referenced in this record:

Heats of mixing and of entropy in porous insertion electrodes
journal, June 2003


A Critical Review of Thermal Issues in Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal, January 2011

  • Bandhauer, Todd M.; Garimella, Srinivas; Fuller, Thomas F.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 158, Issue 3, p. R1-R25
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3515880