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Title: Electrostatic subframing and compressive-sensing video in transmission electron microscopy

Abstract

We present kilohertz-scale video capture rates in a transmission electron microscope, using a camera normally limited to hertz-scale acquisition. An electrostatic deflector rasters a discrete array of images over a large camera, decoupling the acquisition time per subframe from the camera readout time. Total-variation regularization allows features in overlapping subframes to be correctly placed in each frame. Moreover, the system can be operated in a compressive-sensing video mode, whereby the deflections are performed in a known pseudorandom sequence. Compressive sensing in effect performs data compression before the readout, such that the video resulting from the reconstruction can have substantially more total pixels than that were read from the camera. This allows, for example, 100 frames of video to be encoded and reconstructed using only 15 captured subframes in a single camera exposure. We demonstrate experimental tests including laser-driven melting/dewetting, sintering, and grain coarsening of nanostructured gold, with reconstructed video rates up to 10 kHz. The results exemplify the power of the technique by showing that it can be used to study the fundamentally different temporal behavior for the three different physical processes. Both sintering and coarsening exhibited self-limiting behavior, whereby the process essentially stopped even while the heating laser continuedmore » to strike the material. We attribute this to changes in laser absorption and to processes inherent to thin-film coarsening. In contrast, the dewetting proceeded at a relatively uniform rate after an initial incubation time consistent with the establishment of a steady-state temperature profile.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [2];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
  4. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
IDES, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1566126
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1564555
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0013104
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Structural Dynamics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2329-7778
Publisher:
American Crystallographic Association/AIP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; transmission electron microscopy; time resolution; compressive sensing; electrostatic subframing

Citation Formats

Reed, Bryan W., Moghadam, A. A., Bloom, R. S., Park, S. T., Monterrosa, A. M., Price, P. M., Barr, C. M., Briggs, S. A., Hattar, K., McKeown, J. T., and Masiel, D. J. Electrostatic subframing and compressive-sensing video in transmission electron microscopy. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5115162.
Reed, Bryan W., Moghadam, A. A., Bloom, R. S., Park, S. T., Monterrosa, A. M., Price, P. M., Barr, C. M., Briggs, S. A., Hattar, K., McKeown, J. T., & Masiel, D. J. Electrostatic subframing and compressive-sensing video in transmission electron microscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5115162.
Reed, Bryan W., Moghadam, A. A., Bloom, R. S., Park, S. T., Monterrosa, A. M., Price, P. M., Barr, C. M., Briggs, S. A., Hattar, K., McKeown, J. T., and Masiel, D. J. Mon . "Electrostatic subframing and compressive-sensing video in transmission electron microscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5115162. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1566126.
@article{osti_1566126,
title = {Electrostatic subframing and compressive-sensing video in transmission electron microscopy},
author = {Reed, Bryan W. and Moghadam, A. A. and Bloom, R. S. and Park, S. T. and Monterrosa, A. M. and Price, P. M. and Barr, C. M. and Briggs, S. A. and Hattar, K. and McKeown, J. T. and Masiel, D. J.},
abstractNote = {We present kilohertz-scale video capture rates in a transmission electron microscope, using a camera normally limited to hertz-scale acquisition. An electrostatic deflector rasters a discrete array of images over a large camera, decoupling the acquisition time per subframe from the camera readout time. Total-variation regularization allows features in overlapping subframes to be correctly placed in each frame. Moreover, the system can be operated in a compressive-sensing video mode, whereby the deflections are performed in a known pseudorandom sequence. Compressive sensing in effect performs data compression before the readout, such that the video resulting from the reconstruction can have substantially more total pixels than that were read from the camera. This allows, for example, 100 frames of video to be encoded and reconstructed using only 15 captured subframes in a single camera exposure. We demonstrate experimental tests including laser-driven melting/dewetting, sintering, and grain coarsening of nanostructured gold, with reconstructed video rates up to 10 kHz. The results exemplify the power of the technique by showing that it can be used to study the fundamentally different temporal behavior for the three different physical processes. Both sintering and coarsening exhibited self-limiting behavior, whereby the process essentially stopped even while the heating laser continued to strike the material. We attribute this to changes in laser absorption and to processes inherent to thin-film coarsening. In contrast, the dewetting proceeded at a relatively uniform rate after an initial incubation time consistent with the establishment of a steady-state temperature profile.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5115162},
journal = {Structural Dynamics},
number = 5,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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