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Title: Extensive Soot Compaction by Cloud Processing from Laboratory and Field Observations

Abstract

Soot particles form during combustion of carbonaceous materials and impact climate and air quality. When freshly emitted, they are typically fractal-like aggregates. After atmospheric aging, they can act as cloud condensation nuclei, and water condensation or evaporation restructure them to more compact aggregates, affecting their optical, aerodynamic, and surface properties. Here we survey the morphology of ambient soot particles from various locations and different environmental and aging conditions. We used electron microscopy and show extensive soot compaction after cloud processing. We further performed laboratory experiments to simulate atmospheric cloud processing under controlled conditions. We find that soot particles sampled after evaporating the cloud droplets, are significantly more compact than freshly emitted and interstitial soot, confirming that cloud processing, not just exposure to high humidity, compacts soot. Our findings have implications for how the radiative, surface, and aerodynamic properties, and the fate of soot particles are represented in numerical models.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10];  [11] more »; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [13];  [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [1] « less
  1. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Program and Dept. of Physics
  2. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Program and Dept. of Physics; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Program and Dept. of Chemistry
  4. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Program and Dept. of Physics; McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Italian National Research Council, Bologna (Italy). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC)
  6. Italian National Research Council, Bologna (Italy). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC); Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry and Inst. for Atmospheric and Earth System Research
  7. Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, Rome (Italy)
  8. Univ. of Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). School of Engineering
  9. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  10. Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering
  11. Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)
  12. Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)
  13. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  14. DNV GL, Hovik (Norway)
  15. Univ. of Azores (Portugal). Inst. de Investigacao em Vulcanologia e Avaliacao de Riscos - IVAR
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1566118
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-28388
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; SC0006941; SC0010019; SC0018931
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Earth Sciences; soot, climate, morphology, cloud processes, radiation

Citation Formats

Bhandari, Janarjan, China, Swarup, Chandrakar, Kamal Kant, Kinney, Greg, Cantrell, Will, Shaw, Raymond A., Mazzoleni, Lynn R., Girotto, Giulia, Sharma, Noopur, Gorkowski, Kyle, Gilardoni, Stefania, Decesari, Stefano, Facchini, Maria Cristina, Zanca, Nicola, Pavese, Giulia, Esposito, Francesco, Dubey, Manvendra K., Aiken, Allison C., Chakrabarty, Rajan K., Moosmüller, Hans, Onasch, Timothy B., Zaveri, Rahul A., Scarnato, Barbara V., Fialho, Paulo, and Mazzoleni, Claudio. Extensive Soot Compaction by Cloud Processing from Laboratory and Field Observations. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-48143-y.
Bhandari, Janarjan, China, Swarup, Chandrakar, Kamal Kant, Kinney, Greg, Cantrell, Will, Shaw, Raymond A., Mazzoleni, Lynn R., Girotto, Giulia, Sharma, Noopur, Gorkowski, Kyle, Gilardoni, Stefania, Decesari, Stefano, Facchini, Maria Cristina, Zanca, Nicola, Pavese, Giulia, Esposito, Francesco, Dubey, Manvendra K., Aiken, Allison C., Chakrabarty, Rajan K., Moosmüller, Hans, Onasch, Timothy B., Zaveri, Rahul A., Scarnato, Barbara V., Fialho, Paulo, & Mazzoleni, Claudio. Extensive Soot Compaction by Cloud Processing from Laboratory and Field Observations. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-48143-y.
Bhandari, Janarjan, China, Swarup, Chandrakar, Kamal Kant, Kinney, Greg, Cantrell, Will, Shaw, Raymond A., Mazzoleni, Lynn R., Girotto, Giulia, Sharma, Noopur, Gorkowski, Kyle, Gilardoni, Stefania, Decesari, Stefano, Facchini, Maria Cristina, Zanca, Nicola, Pavese, Giulia, Esposito, Francesco, Dubey, Manvendra K., Aiken, Allison C., Chakrabarty, Rajan K., Moosmüller, Hans, Onasch, Timothy B., Zaveri, Rahul A., Scarnato, Barbara V., Fialho, Paulo, and Mazzoleni, Claudio. Wed . "Extensive Soot Compaction by Cloud Processing from Laboratory and Field Observations". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-48143-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1566118.
@article{osti_1566118,
title = {Extensive Soot Compaction by Cloud Processing from Laboratory and Field Observations},
author = {Bhandari, Janarjan and China, Swarup and Chandrakar, Kamal Kant and Kinney, Greg and Cantrell, Will and Shaw, Raymond A. and Mazzoleni, Lynn R. and Girotto, Giulia and Sharma, Noopur and Gorkowski, Kyle and Gilardoni, Stefania and Decesari, Stefano and Facchini, Maria Cristina and Zanca, Nicola and Pavese, Giulia and Esposito, Francesco and Dubey, Manvendra K. and Aiken, Allison C. and Chakrabarty, Rajan K. and Moosmüller, Hans and Onasch, Timothy B. and Zaveri, Rahul A. and Scarnato, Barbara V. and Fialho, Paulo and Mazzoleni, Claudio},
abstractNote = {Soot particles form during combustion of carbonaceous materials and impact climate and air quality. When freshly emitted, they are typically fractal-like aggregates. After atmospheric aging, they can act as cloud condensation nuclei, and water condensation or evaporation restructure them to more compact aggregates, affecting their optical, aerodynamic, and surface properties. Here we survey the morphology of ambient soot particles from various locations and different environmental and aging conditions. We used electron microscopy and show extensive soot compaction after cloud processing. We further performed laboratory experiments to simulate atmospheric cloud processing under controlled conditions. We find that soot particles sampled after evaporating the cloud droplets, are significantly more compact than freshly emitted and interstitial soot, confirming that cloud processing, not just exposure to high humidity, compacts soot. Our findings have implications for how the radiative, surface, and aerodynamic properties, and the fate of soot particles are represented in numerical models.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-48143-y},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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