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Title: Impact of Pulsar and Fallback Sources on Multifrequency Kilonova Models

Abstract

We explore the impact of pulsar electromagnetic dipole and fallback accretion emission on the luminosity of a suite of kilonova models. The pulsar models are varied over pulsar magnetic field strength, pulsar lifetime, ejecta mass, and elemental abundances; the fallback models are varied over fallback accretion rate and ejecta mass. For the abundances, we use Fe and Nd as representatives of the wind and dynamical ejecta, respectively. We simulate radiative transfer in the ejecta in either 1D spherical or 2D cylindrical spatial geometry. For the grid of 1D simulations, the mass fraction of Nd is 0, 10–4, or 10–3, and the rest is Fe. Our models that fit the bolometric luminosity of AT 2017gfo (the kilonova associated with the first neutron star merger discovered in gravitational waves, GW170817) do not simultaneously fit the B, V, and I time evolution. Here, we find that the trends of the evolution in B and V magnitudes are better matched by the fallback model relative to the pulsar model, implying the time-dependence of the remnant source influences the color evolution. Further exploration of the parameter space and model deficiencies is needed before we can describe AT 2017gfo with a remnant source.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States); The George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, East Lansing, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1565901
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-22590
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; TRN: US2000937
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 880; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; methods: numerical; radiative transfer; stars: neutron; supernovae: general

Citation Formats

Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas, Fryer, Chris Lee, Fontes, Christopher John, Lippuner, Jonas, Vestrand, W. Thomas, Mumpower, Matthew Ryan, Korobkin, Oleg, Hungerford, Aimee L., and Even, Wesley Paul. Impact of Pulsar and Fallback Sources on Multifrequency Kilonova Models. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab25f5.
Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas, Fryer, Chris Lee, Fontes, Christopher John, Lippuner, Jonas, Vestrand, W. Thomas, Mumpower, Matthew Ryan, Korobkin, Oleg, Hungerford, Aimee L., & Even, Wesley Paul. Impact of Pulsar and Fallback Sources on Multifrequency Kilonova Models. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab25f5.
Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas, Fryer, Chris Lee, Fontes, Christopher John, Lippuner, Jonas, Vestrand, W. Thomas, Mumpower, Matthew Ryan, Korobkin, Oleg, Hungerford, Aimee L., and Even, Wesley Paul. Fri . "Impact of Pulsar and Fallback Sources on Multifrequency Kilonova Models". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab25f5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1565901.
@article{osti_1565901,
title = {Impact of Pulsar and Fallback Sources on Multifrequency Kilonova Models},
author = {Wollaeger, Ryan Thomas and Fryer, Chris Lee and Fontes, Christopher John and Lippuner, Jonas and Vestrand, W. Thomas and Mumpower, Matthew Ryan and Korobkin, Oleg and Hungerford, Aimee L. and Even, Wesley Paul},
abstractNote = {We explore the impact of pulsar electromagnetic dipole and fallback accretion emission on the luminosity of a suite of kilonova models. The pulsar models are varied over pulsar magnetic field strength, pulsar lifetime, ejecta mass, and elemental abundances; the fallback models are varied over fallback accretion rate and ejecta mass. For the abundances, we use Fe and Nd as representatives of the wind and dynamical ejecta, respectively. We simulate radiative transfer in the ejecta in either 1D spherical or 2D cylindrical spatial geometry. For the grid of 1D simulations, the mass fraction of Nd is 0, 10–4, or 10–3, and the rest is Fe. Our models that fit the bolometric luminosity of AT 2017gfo (the kilonova associated with the first neutron star merger discovered in gravitational waves, GW170817) do not simultaneously fit the B, V, and I time evolution. Here, we find that the trends of the evolution in B and V magnitudes are better matched by the fallback model relative to the pulsar model, implying the time-dependence of the remnant source influences the color evolution. Further exploration of the parameter space and model deficiencies is needed before we can describe AT 2017gfo with a remnant source.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab25f5},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 880,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Cited by: 4 works
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Works referenced in this record:

A Deep Chandra X-Ray Study of Neutron Star Coalescence GW170817
journal, October 2017

  • Haggard, Daryl; Nynka, Melania; Ruan, John J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
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Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event
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[CLC][ITAL]r[/ITAL][/CLC]-Process in Neutron Star Mergers
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The spatial distribution of coalescing neutron star binaries: implications for gamma-ray bursts
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Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
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Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers
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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1227

Impact of ejecta morphology and composition on the electromagnetic signatures of neutron star mergers
journal, April 2018

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  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1018

The Locations of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Evidence for Compact Object Binary Progenitors
journal, September 2013


Neutrino-driven winds from neutron star merger remnants
journal, August 2014

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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1352

A long-lived neutron star merger remnant in GW170817: constraints and clues from X-ray observations
journal, November 2018

  • Piro, L.; Troja, E.; Zhang, B.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3047

Estimating the Contribution of Dynamical Ejecta in the Kilonova Associated with GW170817
journal, December 2017


The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817
journal, October 2017


Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger
journal, October 2017


The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants – II. Radioactively powered transients
journal, January 2014

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The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants - I. The impact of r-process nucleosynthesis
journal, January 2014

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Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: Opacity Regrouping
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Kilonovae
journal, May 2017


Optical and X-ray emission from stable millisecond magnetars formed from the merger of binary neutron stars
journal, March 2014

  • Metzger, Brian D.; Piro, Anthony L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu247

The dynamic ejecta of compact object mergers and eccentric collisions
journal, June 2013

  • Rosswog, Stephan
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue 1992
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0272

Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger
journal, May 2014

  • Metzger, Brian D.; Fernández, Rodrigo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 441, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu802

Neutron star accretion in a supernova
journal, November 1989

  • Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 346
  • DOI: 10.1086/168066

Formation Rates of Black Hole Accretion Disk Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, November 1999

  • Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/307992

A hybrid transport-diffusion Monte Carlo method for frequency-dependent radiative-transfer simulations
journal, August 2012

  • Densmore, Jeffery D.; Thompson, Kelly G.; Urbatsch, Todd J.
  • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 231, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2012.06.020

Extended Calculations of Energy Levels and Transition Rates of Nd ii-iv Ions for Application to Neutron Star Mergers
journal, February 2019

  • Gaigalas, Gediminas; Kato, Daiji; Rynkun, Pavel
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaf9b8

Is the Macronova in GW170817 Powered by the Central Engine?
journal, July 2018

  • Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Ioka, Kunihito; Kisaka, Shota
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a8

Observationally constraining gravitational wave emission from short gamma-ray burst remnants
journal, February 2016

  • Lasky, Paul D.; Glampedakis, Kostas
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw435

On the astrophysical robustness of the neutron star merger r-process: Robust r-process in neutron star mergers
journal, October 2012


Observations of the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source by the TOROS Collaboration
journal, October 2017

  • Díaz, M. C.; Macri, L. M.; Lambas, D. Garcia
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa9060

Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A
journal, October 2017


Modeling GW170817 based on numerical relativity and its implications
journal, December 2017


Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation
journal, July 2014

  • Rowlinson, A.; Gompertz, B. P.; Dainotti, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1277

A new Monte Carlo Method for Time-Dependent Neutrino Radiation Transport
journal, August 2012


Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements
journal, October 2017


Hyperaccreting Black Holes and Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, June 1999

  • Popham, Robert; Woosley, S. E.; Fryer, Chris
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 518, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/307259

Spitzer Mid-Infrared Detections of Neutron Star Merger GW170817 Suggests Synthesis of the Heaviest Elements
journal, January 2019

  • Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kasen, Daniel; Lau, Ryan M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slz007

Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: a Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
journal, November 2013

  • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Graziani, Carlo
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 209, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/36

The Origin of r -process Elements in the Milky Way
journal, March 2018

  • Côté, Benoit; Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztof
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 855, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaad67

What Powered the Optical Transient AT2017gfo Associated with GW170817?
journal, July 2018


MAGNETOROTATIONALLY DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY GALAXY r -PROCESS ELEMENTS?
journal, April 2012


r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE
journal, December 2015


Mitigating Teleportation Error in Frequency-Dependent Hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion Methods
journal, July 2014

  • Cleveland, Mathew A.; Gentile, Nick
  • Journal of Computational and Theoretical Transport, Vol. 43, Issue 1-7
  • DOI: 10.1080/00411450.2014.909850

Systematics of Dynamical mass Ejection, Nucleosynthesis, and Radioactively Powered Electromagnetic Signals from Neutron-Star Mergers
journal, July 2013


The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes
journal, May 2015

  • Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 48, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/48/14/144014

X-Ray-Powered Macronovae
journal, February 2016


Black-hole-neutron-star collisions
journal, September 1974

  • Lattimer, J. M.; Schramm, D. N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 192
  • DOI: 10.1086/181612

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A
    journal, October 2017


    Observationally constraining gravitational wave emission from short gamma-ray burst remnants
    journal, February 2016

    • Lasky, Paul D.; Glampedakis, Kostas
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw435

    Observations of the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source by the TOROS Collaboration
    journal, October 2017

    • Díaz, M. C.; Macri, L. M.; Lambas, D. Garcia
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa9060

    Spitzer Mid-Infrared Detections of Neutron Star Merger GW170817 Suggests Synthesis of the Heaviest Elements
    journal, January 2019

    • Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kasen, Daniel; Lau, Ryan M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slz007

    Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation
    journal, July 2014

    • Rowlinson, A.; Gompertz, B. P.; Dainotti, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1277

    Hyperaccreting Black Holes and Gamma‐Ray Bursts
    journal, June 1999

    • Popham, Robert; Woosley, S. E.; Fryer, Chris
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 518, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/307259

    X-Ray-Powered Macronovae
    journal, February 2016


    Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger
    journal, May 2014

    • Metzger, Brian D.; Fernández, Rodrigo
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 441, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu802

    Neutron star accretion in a supernova
    journal, November 1989

    • Chevalier, Roger A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 346
    • DOI: 10.1086/168066

    Optical and X-ray emission from stable millisecond magnetars formed from the merger of binary neutron stars
    journal, March 2014

    • Metzger, Brian D.; Piro, Anthony L.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu247

    A hybrid transport-diffusion Monte Carlo method for frequency-dependent radiative-transfer simulations
    journal, August 2012

    • Densmore, Jeffery D.; Thompson, Kelly G.; Urbatsch, Todd J.
    • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 231, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2012.06.020

    The dynamic ejecta of compact object mergers and eccentric collisions
    journal, June 2013

    • Rosswog, Stephan
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue 1992
    • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0272

    Black-hole-neutron-star collisions
    journal, September 1974

    • Lattimer, J. M.; Schramm, D. N.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 192
    • DOI: 10.1086/181612

    Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: a Multigroup Hybrid Monte Carlo Method
    journal, November 2013

    • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Graziani, Carlo
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 209, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/209/2/36

    The Origin of r -process Elements in the Milky Way
    journal, March 2018

    • Côté, Benoit; Fryer, Chris L.; Belczynski, Krzysztof
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 855, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaad67

    The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817
    journal, October 2017


    Systematics of Dynamical mass Ejection, Nucleosynthesis, and Radioactively Powered Electromagnetic Signals from Neutron-Star Mergers
    journal, July 2013


    Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event
    journal, October 2017

    • Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer
    • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature24453

    Extended Calculations of Energy Levels and Transition Rates of Nd ii-iv Ions for Application to Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, February 2019

    • Gaigalas, Gediminas; Kato, Daiji; Rynkun, Pavel
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaf9b8

    Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers
    journal, May 2016

    • Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo; Lippuner, Jonas
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1227

    Formation Rates of Black Hole Accretion Disk Gamma‐Ray Bursts
    journal, November 1999

    • Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/307992

    Neutron Star Mergers and Nucleosynthesis of Heavy Elements
    journal, October 2017


    Identification of two classes of gamma-ray bursts
    journal, August 1993

    • Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
    • DOI: 10.1086/186969

    Kilonovae
    journal, May 2017


    Is the Macronova in GW170817 Powered by the Central Engine?
    journal, July 2018

    • Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Ioka, Kunihito; Kisaka, Shota
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a8

    The spatial distribution of coalescing neutron star binaries: implications for gamma-ray bursts
    journal, May 1999

    • Bloom, Joshua S.; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Pols, Onno R.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 305, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02437.x

    What Powered the Optical Transient AT2017gfo Associated with GW170817?
    journal, July 2018


    The impact of individual nuclear properties on r -process nucleosynthesis
    journal, January 2016

    • Mumpower, M. R.; Surman, R.; McLaughlin, G. C.
    • Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vol. 86
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.ppnp.2015.09.001

    Neutrino-driven winds from neutron star merger remnants
    journal, August 2014

    • Perego, A.; Rosswog, S.; Cabezon, R. M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1352

    A new Monte Carlo Method for Time-Dependent Neutrino Radiation Transport
    journal, August 2012


    The Los Alamos suite of relativistic atomic physics codes
    journal, May 2015

    • Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Jr, J. Abdallah
    • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 48, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/48/14/144014

    Mitigating Teleportation Error in Frequency-Dependent Hybrid Implicit Monte Carlo Diffusion Methods
    journal, July 2014

    • Cleveland, Mathew A.; Gentile, Nick
    • Journal of Computational and Theoretical Transport, Vol. 43, Issue 1-7
    • DOI: 10.1080/00411450.2014.909850

    A Deep Chandra X-Ray Study of Neutron Star Coalescence GW170817
    journal, October 2017

    • Haggard, Daryl; Nynka, Melania; Ruan, John J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8ede

    r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE
    journal, December 2015


    MAGNETOROTATIONALLY DRIVEN SUPERNOVAE AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY GALAXY r -PROCESS ELEMENTS?
    journal, April 2012


    Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
    journal, October 2017


    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger
    journal, October 2017


    The Locations of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Evidence for Compact Object Binary Progenitors
    journal, September 2013


    [CLC][ITAL]r[/ITAL][/CLC]-Process in Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, November 1999

    • Freiburghaus, C.; Rosswog, S.; Thielemann, F. -K.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 525, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/312343

    Radiation Transport for Explosive Outflows: Opacity Regrouping
    journal, October 2014

    • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; van Rossum, Daniel R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 214, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/214/2/28

    Modeling GW170817 based on numerical relativity and its implications
    journal, December 2017


    The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants – II. Radioactively powered transients
    journal, January 2014

    • Grossman, Doron; Korobkin, Oleg; Rosswog, Stephan
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2503

    The long-term evolution of neutron star merger remnants - I. The impact of r-process nucleosynthesis
    journal, January 2014

    • Rosswog, S.; Korobkin, O.; Arcones, A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 439, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2502

    Estimating the Contribution of Dynamical Ejecta in the Kilonova Associated with GW170817
    journal, December 2017


    Neutrinos from Fallback onto Newly Formed Neutron Stars
    journal, June 2009


    Bright “Merger-Nova” from the Remnant of a Neutron star Binary Merger: a Signature of a Newly Born, Massive, Millisecond Magnetar
    journal, October 2013


    A long-lived neutron star merger remnant in GW170817: constraints and clues from X-ray observations
    journal, November 2018

    • Piro, L.; Troja, E.; Zhang, B.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3047

    On the astrophysical robustness of the neutron star merger r-process: Robust r-process in neutron star mergers
    journal, October 2012


    Impact of ejecta morphology and composition on the electromagnetic signatures of neutron star mergers
    journal, April 2018

    • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Korobkin, Oleg; Fontes, Christopher J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1018

    Kilonovae
    journal, December 2019


    Diversity of Kilonova Light Curves
    journal, February 2020

    • Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab61f6

    Gamma Rays from Kilonova: A Potential Probe of r -process Nucleosynthesis
    journal, February 2020

    • Korobkin, Oleg; Hungerford, Aimee M.; Fryer, Christopher L.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab64d8