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Title: Off-fault deformations and shallow slip deficit from dynamic rupture simulations with fault zone plasticity

Abstract

Kinematic source inversions of major (M≥7) strike-slip earthquakes show that the slip at depth exceeds surface displacements measured in the field, and it has been suggested that this shallow slip deficit (SSD) is caused by distributed plastic deformation near the surface. We perform dynamic rupture simulations of M 7.2–7.4 earthquakes in elastoplastic media and analyze the sensitivity of SSD and off-fault deformation (OFD) to rock quality parameters. While linear simulations clearly underpredict observed SSD and OFDs, nonlinear simulations for a moderately fractured fault damage zone predict a SSD of 44–53% and OFDs of 39–48%, consistent with the 30–60% SSD and 46 ± 10% (1σ) OFD reported for the 1992 M 7.3 Landers earthquake. Finally, both SSD and OFDs are sensitive to the quality of the fractured rock mass inside the fault damage zone, and surface rupture is almost entirely suppressed in poor quality material.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1565535
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; 16238
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Geology; shallow slip deficit; fault zone plasticity; dynamic rupture simulation; fault zone deformation

Citation Formats

Roten, D., Olsen, K. B., and Day, S. M. Off-fault deformations and shallow slip deficit from dynamic rupture simulations with fault zone plasticity. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017gl074323.
Roten, D., Olsen, K. B., & Day, S. M. Off-fault deformations and shallow slip deficit from dynamic rupture simulations with fault zone plasticity. United States. doi:10.1002/2017gl074323.
Roten, D., Olsen, K. B., and Day, S. M. Tue . "Off-fault deformations and shallow slip deficit from dynamic rupture simulations with fault zone plasticity". United States. doi:10.1002/2017gl074323. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1565535.
@article{osti_1565535,
title = {Off-fault deformations and shallow slip deficit from dynamic rupture simulations with fault zone plasticity},
author = {Roten, D. and Olsen, K. B. and Day, S. M.},
abstractNote = {Kinematic source inversions of major (M≥7) strike-slip earthquakes show that the slip at depth exceeds surface displacements measured in the field, and it has been suggested that this shallow slip deficit (SSD) is caused by distributed plastic deformation near the surface. We perform dynamic rupture simulations of M 7.2–7.4 earthquakes in elastoplastic media and analyze the sensitivity of SSD and off-fault deformation (OFD) to rock quality parameters. While linear simulations clearly underpredict observed SSD and OFDs, nonlinear simulations for a moderately fractured fault damage zone predict a SSD of 44–53% and OFDs of 39–48%, consistent with the 30–60% SSD and 46 ± 10% (1σ) OFD reported for the 1992 M 7.3 Landers earthquake. Finally, both SSD and OFDs are sensitive to the quality of the fractured rock mass inside the fault damage zone, and surface rupture is almost entirely suppressed in poor quality material.},
doi = {10.1002/2017gl074323},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 15,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}

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