## Nonlinear electromagnetic formulation for particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid waves in toroidal geometry

## Abstract

An electromagnetic particle simulation model has been formulated and verified for nonlinear processes of lower hybrid (LH) waves in fusion plasmas. Electron dynamics are described by the drift kinetic equation using either kinetic momentum or canonical momentum. Ion dynamics are treated as the fluid system or by the Vlasov equation. Compressible magnetic perturbation is retained to simulate both the fast and slow LH waves. Numerical properties are greatly improved by using the electron continuity equation to enforce the consistency between electrostatic potential and vector potential, and by using the importance sampling scheme. Here, the simulation model has been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC), and verified for the dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping of the electromagnetic LH waves.

- Authors:

- Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
- Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1565477

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1255627

- Grant/Contract Number:
- AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725; FG02-07ER54916

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Physics of Plasmas

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X

- Publisher:
- American Institute of Physics (AIP)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Physics

### Citation Formats

```
Bao, J., Lin, Z., Kuley, A., and Wang, Z. X. Nonlinear electromagnetic formulation for particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid waves in toroidal geometry. United States: N. p., 2016.
Web. doi:10.1063/1.4952773.
```

```
Bao, J., Lin, Z., Kuley, A., & Wang, Z. X. Nonlinear electromagnetic formulation for particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid waves in toroidal geometry. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4952773.
```

```
Bao, J., Lin, Z., Kuley, A., and Wang, Z. X. Fri .
"Nonlinear electromagnetic formulation for particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid waves in toroidal geometry". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4952773. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1565477.
```

```
@article{osti_1565477,
```

title = {Nonlinear electromagnetic formulation for particle-in-cell simulation of lower hybrid waves in toroidal geometry},

author = {Bao, J. and Lin, Z. and Kuley, A. and Wang, Z. X.},

abstractNote = {An electromagnetic particle simulation model has been formulated and verified for nonlinear processes of lower hybrid (LH) waves in fusion plasmas. Electron dynamics are described by the drift kinetic equation using either kinetic momentum or canonical momentum. Ion dynamics are treated as the fluid system or by the Vlasov equation. Compressible magnetic perturbation is retained to simulate both the fast and slow LH waves. Numerical properties are greatly improved by using the electron continuity equation to enforce the consistency between electrostatic potential and vector potential, and by using the importance sampling scheme. Here, the simulation model has been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC), and verified for the dispersion relation and nonlinear particle trapping of the electromagnetic LH waves.},

doi = {10.1063/1.4952773},

journal = {Physics of Plasmas},

number = 6,

volume = 23,

place = {United States},

year = {2016},

month = {6}

}

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