DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4

Abstract

Findings are introduced from the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4), simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) at the standard 1° resolution, the same resolution as the majority of the CCSM4 CMIP5 long-term simulations for the historical and future projection scenarios. The forcings and boundary conditions for this simulation follow the protocols of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project, version 3 (PMIP3). Two additional CCSM4 CO2 sensitivity simulations, in which the concentrations are abruptly changed at the start of the simulation to the low 185 ppm LGM concentrations (LGMCO2) and to a quadrupling of the preindustrial concentration (4×CO2), are also analyzed. For the full LGM simulation, the estimated equilibrium cooling of the global mean annual surface temperature is 5.5°C with an estimated radiative forcing of -6.2 W m-2. The radiative forcing includes the effects of the reduced LGM greenhouse gases, ice sheets, continental distribution with sea level lowered by approximately 120 m from the present, and orbital parameters, but not changes to atmospheric aerosols or vegetation biogeography. The LGM simulation has an equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) of 3.1(±0.3)°C, comparable to the CCSM4 4×CO2 result. The LGMCO2 simulation shows amore » greater ECS of 4.2°C. Other responses found at the LGM in CCSM4 include a global precipitation rate decrease at a rate of ~2% °C-1, similar to climate change simulations in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4); a strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) with a shoaling of North Atlantic Deep Water and a filling of the deep basin up to sill depth with Antarctic Bottom Water; and an enhanced seasonal cycle accompanied by reduced ENSO variability in the eastern Pacific Ocean’s SSTs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1565085
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Climate
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0894-8755
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Climate models

Citation Formats

Brady, Esther C., Otto-Bliesner, Bette L., Kay, Jennifer E., and Rosenbloom, Nan. Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-11-00416.1.
Brady, Esther C., Otto-Bliesner, Bette L., Kay, Jennifer E., & Rosenbloom, Nan. Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4. United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-11-00416.1
Brady, Esther C., Otto-Bliesner, Bette L., Kay, Jennifer E., and Rosenbloom, Nan. Fri . "Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4". United States. https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli-d-11-00416.1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1565085.
@article{osti_1565085,
title = {Sensitivity to Glacial Forcing in the CCSM4},
author = {Brady, Esther C. and Otto-Bliesner, Bette L. and Kay, Jennifer E. and Rosenbloom, Nan},
abstractNote = {Findings are introduced from the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4), simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) at the standard 1° resolution, the same resolution as the majority of the CCSM4 CMIP5 long-term simulations for the historical and future projection scenarios. The forcings and boundary conditions for this simulation follow the protocols of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project, version 3 (PMIP3). Two additional CCSM4 CO2 sensitivity simulations, in which the concentrations are abruptly changed at the start of the simulation to the low 185 ppm LGM concentrations (LGMCO2) and to a quadrupling of the preindustrial concentration (4×CO2), are also analyzed. For the full LGM simulation, the estimated equilibrium cooling of the global mean annual surface temperature is 5.5°C with an estimated radiative forcing of -6.2 W m-2. The radiative forcing includes the effects of the reduced LGM greenhouse gases, ice sheets, continental distribution with sea level lowered by approximately 120 m from the present, and orbital parameters, but not changes to atmospheric aerosols or vegetation biogeography. The LGM simulation has an equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) of 3.1(±0.3)°C, comparable to the CCSM4 4×CO2 result. The LGMCO2 simulation shows a greater ECS of 4.2°C. Other responses found at the LGM in CCSM4 include a global precipitation rate decrease at a rate of ~2% °C-1, similar to climate change simulations in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4); a strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) with a shoaling of North Atlantic Deep Water and a filling of the deep basin up to sill depth with Antarctic Bottom Water; and an enhanced seasonal cycle accompanied by reduced ENSO variability in the eastern Pacific Ocean’s SSTs.},
doi = {10.1175/jcli-d-11-00416.1},
journal = {Journal of Climate},
number = 6,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2013},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 94 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Meta-analysis of tropical surface temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, January 2005


Pollen-based continental climate reconstructions at 6 and 21 ka: a global synthesis
journal, September 2010


A new method to estimate ice age temperatures
journal, December 2004

  • Bintanja, Richard; Wal, Roderik S. W. van de; Oerlemans, Johannes
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 24, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-004-0486-x

Maintenance of the Sea-Ice Edge
journal, August 2005

  • Bitz, C. M.; Holland, M. M.; Hunke, E. C.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 18, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3428.1

Climate Sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model, Version 4
journal, May 2012


Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice Sheet
journal, October 1998


Changes in the atmospheric CH 4 gradient between Greenland and Antarctica during the Last Glacial and the transition to the Holocene
journal, April 2000

  • Dällenbach, A.; Blunier, T.; Flückiger, J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GL010873

Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity: Is It Accurate to Use a Slab Ocean Model?
journal, May 2009


The CCSM4 Ocean Component
journal, March 2012

  • Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Bates, Susan C.; Briegleb, Bruce P.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00091.1

Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in CCSM4
journal, August 2012


ENSO and Pacific Decadal Variability in the Community Climate System Model Version 4
journal, April 2012


Sea-ice cover, sea-surface salinity and halo-/thermocline structure of the northwest North Atlantic: modern versus full glacial conditions
journal, January 2000


Using the past to constrain the future: how the palaeorecord can improve estimates of global warming
journal, October 2007

  • Edwards, Tamsin L.; Crucifix, Michel; Harrison, Sandy P.
  • Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Vol. 31, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1177/0309133307083295

Variations in Atmospheric N2O Concentration During Abrupt Climatic Changes
journal, July 1999


The Community Climate System Model Version 4
journal, October 2011

  • Gent, Peter R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Donner, Leo J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1

The climate response to CO 2 of the Hadley Centre coupled AOGCM with and without flux adjustment
journal, August 1997

  • Gregory, J. M.; Mitchell, J. F. B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL01930

A new method for diagnosing radiative forcing and climate sensitivity
journal, January 2004


Linking glacial and future climates through an ensemble of GCM simulations
journal, January 2007

  • Hargreaves, J. C.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Annan, J. D.
  • Climate of the Past, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/cp-3-77-2007

Robust Responses of the Hydrological Cycle to Global Warming
journal, November 2006

  • Held, Isaac M.; Soden, Brian J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1

Improved Sea Ice Shortwave Radiation Physics in CCSM4: The Impact of Melt Ponds and Aerosols on Arctic Sea Ice
journal, March 2012

  • Holland, Marika M.; Bailey, David A.; Briegleb, Bruce P.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00078.1

Late-Twentieth-Century Simulation of Arctic Sea Ice and Ocean Properties in the CCSM4
journal, March 2012


The Influence of Local Feedbacks and Northward Heat Transport on the Equilibrium Arctic Climate Response to Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing
journal, August 2012

  • Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika M.; Bitz, Cecilia M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 25, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00622.1

The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth's temperature to radiation changes
journal, October 2008

  • Knutti, Reto; Hegerl, Gabriele C.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 1, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo337

The Scandinavian Ice Sheet: from MIS 4 to the end of the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, April 2010


Antarctic Sea Ice Climatology, Variability, and Late Twentieth-Century Change in CCSM4
journal, July 2012

  • Landrum, Laura; Holland, Marika M.; Schneider, David P.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 25, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00289.1

Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4
journal, February 2013

  • Landrum, Laura; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Wahl, Eugene R.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00326.1

Implementation of new diffusion/filtering operators in the CAM-FV dynamical core
journal, June 2011

  • Lauritzen, Peter H.; Mirin, Arthur A.; Truesdale, John
  • The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1177/1094342011410088

The CCSM4 Land Simulation, 1850–2005: Assessment of Surface Climate and New Capabilities
journal, April 2012


Representing a new MODIS consistent land surface in the Community Land Model (CLM 3.0)
journal, January 2007

  • Lawrence, Peter J.; Chase, Thomas N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JG000168

Low sea surface salinity in the East Sea during the last glacial maximum: review on freshwater supply
journal, March 2004


Weaker Gulf Stream in the Florida Straits during the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, December 1999

  • Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B.; Slowey, Niall
  • Nature, Vol. 402, Issue 6762
  • DOI: 10.1038/45204

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation During the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, April 2007


Past and future polar amplification of climate change: climate model intercomparisons and ice-core constraints
journal, December 2005


Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes
journal, April 2004

  • McManus, J. F.; Francois, R.; Gherardi, J. -M.
  • Nature, Vol. 428, Issue 6985
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature02494

Climate System Response to External Forcings and Climate Change Projections in CCSM4
journal, June 2012

  • Meehl, Gerald A.; Washington, Warren M.; Arblaster, Julie M.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 25, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00240.1

Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations over the Last Glacial Termination
journal, January 2001


The Impact of Convection on ENSO: From a Delayed Oscillator to a Series of Events
journal, November 2008

  • Neale, Richard B.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Jochum, Markus
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2244.1

The Mean Climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in Forced SST and Fully Coupled Experiments
journal, July 2013


The sensitivity of the climate response to the magnitude and location of freshwater forcing: last glacial maximum experiments
journal, January 2010


Modeling El Niño and its tropical teleconnections during the last glacial-interglacial cycle: HOLOCENE AND GLACIAL EL NIÑO
journal, December 2003

  • Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Brady, Esther C.; Shin, Sang-Ik
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2003GL018553

Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene Climate in CCSM3
journal, June 2006

  • Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Brady, Esther C.; Clauzet, Gabriel
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3748.1

Last Glacial Maximum ocean thermohaline circulation: PMIP2 model intercomparisons and data constraints
journal, January 2007

  • Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Hewitt, C. D.; Marchitto, T. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL029475

A comparison of PMIP2 model simulations and the MARGO proxy reconstruction for tropical sea surface temperatures at last glacial maximum
journal, January 2009


GLOBAL GLACIAL ISOSTASY AND THE SURFACE OF THE ICE-AGE EARTH: The ICE-5G (VM2) Model and GRACE
journal, May 2004


Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data
journal, December 2007


Effects of Convective Momentum Transport on the Atmospheric Circulation in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3
journal, April 2008


Forcing of the deep ocean circulation in simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum: FORCING OF THE DEEP OCEAN
journal, May 2002

  • Schmittner, A.; Meissner, K. J.; Eby, M.
  • Paleoceanography, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001PA000633

Climate sensitivity estimated from ensemble simulations of glacial climate
journal, March 2006

  • Schneider von Deimling, Thomas; Held, Hermann; Ganopolski, Andrey
  • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 27, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-006-0126-8

The time-dependence of climate sensitivity
journal, September 2000

  • Senior, Catherine A.; Mitchell, John F. B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000GL011373

A Simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum climate using the NCAR-CCSM
journal, January 2003


Land/sea warming ratio in response to climate change: IPCC AR4 model results and comparison with observations
journal, January 2007

  • Sutton, Rowan T.; Dong, Buwen; Gregory, Jonathan M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028164

A geophysically constrained large ensemble analysis of the deglacial history of the North American ice-sheet complex
journal, February 2004


Estimating Shortwave Radiative Forcing and Response in Climate Models
journal, June 2007

  • Taylor, K. E.; Crucifix, M.; Braconnot, P.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 20, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4143.1

Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling on land model response to CO 2 fertilization and climate variability : INFLUENCE OF CARBON-NITROGEN COUPLING
journal, December 2007

  • Thornton, Peter E.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Rosenbloom, Nan A.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 21, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GB002868

Midlatitude westerlies, atmospheric CO 2 , and climate change during the ice ages : WESTERLIES AND CO
journal, April 2006

  • Toggweiler, J. R.; Russell, Joellen L.; Carson, S. R.
  • Paleoceanography, Vol. 21, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005PA001154

A Comparison of Climate Feedback Strength between CO 2 Doubling and LGM Experiments
journal, June 2009

  • Yoshimori, Masakazu; Yokohata, Tokuta; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2801.1

ENSO at 6ka and 21ka from ocean–atmosphere coupled model simulations
journal, October 2007


Works referencing / citing this record:

The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations
journal, January 2017

  • Jungclaus, Johann H.; Bard, Edouard; Baroni, Mélanie
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017

Warm summers during the Younger Dryas cold reversal
journal, April 2018

  • Schenk, Frederik; Väliranta, Minna; Muschitiello, Francesco
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04071-5

The effect of greenhouse gas concentrations and ice sheets on the glacial AMOC in a coupled climate model
journal, January 2016

  • Klockmann, Marlene; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Marotzke, Jochem
  • Climate of the Past, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.5194/cp-12-1829-2016

Does Antarctic glaciation cool the world?
journal, January 2013


What can Palaeoclimate Modelling do for you?
journal, April 2019


Ice-sheet configuration in the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Glacial Maximum experiments
journal, January 2015

  • Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kageyama, M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-8-3621-2015

Connecting Antarctic sea ice to deep-ocean circulation in modern and glacial climate simulations: SEA ICE AND GLACIAL AMOC
journal, June 2017

  • Marzocchi, Alice; Jansen, Malte F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017gl073936

The tropical lapse rate steepened during the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, January 2017

  • Loomis, Shannon E.; Russell, James M.; Verschuren, Dirk
  • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600815

The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments
journal, January 2017

  • Kageyama, Masa; Albani, Samuel; Braconnot, Pascale
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-10-4035-2017

African climate response to orbital and glacial forcing in 140,000-y simulation with implications for early modern human environments
journal, January 2020

  • Kutzbach, John E.; Guan, Jian; He, Feng
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 117, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917673117

A tale of four bears: Environmental signal on the phylogeographical patterns within the extant Ursus species
journal, December 2019

  • Luna‐Aranguré, Carlos; Soberón, Jorge; Vázquez‐Domínguez, Ella
  • Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 47, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13752

North Pacific Paleotemperature and Paleoproductivity Reconstructions Based on Diatom Species
journal, July 2018

  • Lopes, C.; Mix, A. C.
  • Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, Vol. 33, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018pa003352

The dependence of equilibrium climate sensitivity on climate state: Applications to studies of climates colder than present: CLIMATE SENSITIVITY AND CLIMATE STATE
journal, July 2013

  • Kutzbach, John E.; He, Feng; Vavrus, Steve J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50724

Coupled climate–carbon cycle simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease using a large ensemble of modern plausible parameter sets
journal, January 2019

  • Kemppinen, Krista M. S.; Holden, Philip B.; Edwards, Neil R.
  • Climate of the Past, Vol. 15, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.5194/cp-15-1039-2019

Concealed truth: Modeling reveals unique Quaternary distribution dynamics and refugia of four related endemic keystone Abies taxa on the Tibetan Plateau
journal, December 2019

  • Xiong, Qinli; Halmy, Marwa Waseem A.; Dakhil, Mohammed A.
  • Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 9, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5866

Modeling Dust Direct Radiative Feedbacks in East Asia During the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, March 2019


Does Southern Ocean Surface Forcing Shape the Global Ocean Overturning Circulation?
journal, March 2018

  • Sun, Shantong; Eisenman, Ian; Stewart, Andrew L.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017gl076437

Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet impacts on North Atlantic climate variability: The importance of the sea ice lid: LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM ICE SHEET IMPACTS
journal, December 2013

  • Vettoretti, Guido; Peltier, W. Richard
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013gl058486

Glacial Inception in Marine Isotope Stage 19: An Orbital Analog for a Natural Holocene Climate
journal, July 2018


Impacts of surface boundary conditions on regional climate model simulations of European climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: Regional European Climate During the LGM
journal, May 2017

  • Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Raible, Christoph C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017gl073622

A Review of Paleo El Niño-Southern Oscillation
journal, March 2018


Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on East Asian Summer Monsoon During the Last Glacial Maximum: Role of Snow‐Albedo Feedback
journal, October 2019

  • Shi, Zhengguo; Xie, Xiaoning; Ren, Xin
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019gl084211

Past continental shelf evolution increased Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to climatic conditions
journal, July 2018


Seasonal changes of the South American monsoon system during the Mid-Holocene in the CMIP5 simulations
journal, January 2020


In and out of glacial extremes by way of dust−climate feedbacks
journal, February 2018

  • Shaffer, Gary; Lambert, Fabrice
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708174115

Thermodynamic and Dynamic Causes of Pluvial Conditions During the Last Glacial Maximum in Western North America: LGM Western U.S. Moisture Budget
journal, January 2018

  • Morrill, Carrie; Lowry, Daniel P.; Hoell, Andrew
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017gl075807

The impact of the North American glacial topography on the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet over the last glacial cycle
journal, January 2016

  • Liakka, Johan; Löfverström, Marcus; Colleoni, Florence
  • Climate of the Past, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/cp-12-1225-2016

Is the Last Glacial Maximum a reverse analog for future hydroclimate changes in the Americas?
journal, August 2018


Paleodust variability since the Last Glacial Maximum and implications for iron inputs to the ocean: PALEODUST VARIABILITY AND IRON
journal, April 2016

  • Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Murphy, L. N.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016gl067911

Numerical simulations of a kilometre-thick Arctic ice shelf consistent with ice grounding observations
journal, April 2018


Twelve thousand years of dust: the Holocene global dust cycle constrained by natural archives
journal, January 2015


The sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets to atmospheric forcing during the last glacial cycle using PMIP3 models
journal, July 2019

  • Niu, Lu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Hinck, Sebastian
  • Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 65, Issue 252
  • DOI: 10.1017/jog.2019.42

Model evidence for a seasonal bias in Antarctic ice cores
journal, April 2018

  • Erb, Michael P.; Jackson, Charles S.; Broccoli, Anthony J.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03800-0

Evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation in response to changing ice sheets over the last glacial cycle
journal, January 2014

  • Löfverström, M.; Caballero, R.; Nilsson, J.
  • Climate of the Past Discussions, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.5194/cpd-10-1381-2014

The Stability of the AMOC During Heinrich Events Is Not Dependent on the AMOC Strength in an Intermediate Complexity Earth System Model Ensemble
journal, August 2019

  • Goes, Marlos; Murphy, Lisa N.; Clement, Amy C.
  • Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, Vol. 34, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019pa003580

Glacial changes in tropical climate amplified by the Indian Ocean
journal, December 2018

  • DiNezio, Pedro N.; Tierney, Jessica E.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat9658

A spatiotemporal reconstruction of sea-surface temperatures in the North Atlantic during Dansgaard–Oeschger events 5–8
journal, January 2018

  • Jensen, Mari F.; Nummelin, Aleksi; Nielsen, Søren B.
  • Climate of the Past, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/cp-14-901-2018

Deglacial evolution of regional Antarctic climate and Southern Ocean conditions in transient climate simulations
journal, January 2019

  • Lowry, Daniel P.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Menviel, Laurie
  • Climate of the Past, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/cp-15-189-2019

Improved dust representation in the Community Atmosphere Model
journal, July 2014

  • Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Perry, A. T.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013ms000279

The de-correlation of westerly winds and westerly-wind stress over the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, February 2015


Reduced El Nino-Southern Oscillation during the Last Glacial Maximum
journal, January 2015


Dynamical downscaling of tropical cyclones from CCSM4 simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum: DOWNSCALING LGM TROPICAL CYCLONES
journal, August 2016

  • Yoo, Jinwoong; Galewsky, Joseph; Camargo, Suzana J.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016ms000685

Evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation in response to changing ice sheets over the last glacial cycle
journal, January 2014


Interactive ocean bathymetry and coastlines for simulating the last deglaciation with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM-v1.2)
journal, January 2018

  • Meccia, Virna Loana; Mikolajewicz, Uwe
  • Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 11, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-4677-2018

Ice-sheet configuration in the CMIP5/PMIP3 Last Glacial Maximum experiments
journal, January 2015

  • Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kageyama, M.
  • Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/gmdd-8-4293-2015

A spatiotemporal reconstruction of sea-surface temperatures in the North Atlantic during Dansgaard–Oeschger events 5–8
text, January 2018

  • Jensen, Mari F.; Nummelin, Aleksi; Nielsen, Søren B.
  • Copernicus Publications
  • DOI: 10.7892/boris.118815

Coupled climate-carbon cycle simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum atmospheric CO2 decrease using a large ensemble of modern plausible parameter sets
text, January 2019

  • Kemppinen, Kms; Holden, Pb; Edwards, Nr
  • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
  • DOI: 10.17863/cam.41488