skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Implementation and application of two synthetic diagnostics for validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence

Abstract

The deployment of multiple high-resolution, spatially localized fluctuation diagnostics on the DIII-D tokamak opens the door to a new level of core turbulence model validation. Toward this end, the implementation of synthetic diagnostics that model physical beam emission spectroscopy and correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostics is presented. Initial results from their applications to local gyrokinetic simulations of two locations in a DIII-D L-mode discharge performed with the GYRO code are also discussed. At normalized toroidal flux ρ = 0.5, we find very good agreement between experiment and simulation in both the energy flows and fluctuation levels measured by both diagnostics. However, at ρ = 0.75, GYRO underpredicts the observed energy flows by roughly a factor of 7, with rms fluctuation levels underpredicted by a factor of 3. Interestingly, at both locations we find good agreement in the shapes of the radial and vertical density correlation functions and in the shapes of the frequency power spectra. Here, at both locations, the attenuation of the GYRO-predicted fluctuations due to the spatial averaging imposed by the diagnostics’ spot sizes is significant, and its incorporation via the use of synthetic diagnostics is shown to be essential for quantitative comparisons such as these.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
  4. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Univ. of California, Oakland, CA (United States); UT-Battelle LLC/ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1564654
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725; FG02-07ER54917; FG02-89ER53296; FG03-01ER54615; FG03-95ER54309
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Physics

Citation Formats

Holland, C., White, A. E., McKee, G. R., Shafer, M. W., Candy, J., Waltz, R. E., Schmitz, L., and Tynan, G. R. Implementation and application of two synthetic diagnostics for validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3085792.
Holland, C., White, A. E., McKee, G. R., Shafer, M. W., Candy, J., Waltz, R. E., Schmitz, L., & Tynan, G. R. Implementation and application of two synthetic diagnostics for validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3085792.
Holland, C., White, A. E., McKee, G. R., Shafer, M. W., Candy, J., Waltz, R. E., Schmitz, L., and Tynan, G. R. Fri . "Implementation and application of two synthetic diagnostics for validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3085792. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1564654.
@article{osti_1564654,
title = {Implementation and application of two synthetic diagnostics for validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence},
author = {Holland, C. and White, A. E. and McKee, G. R. and Shafer, M. W. and Candy, J. and Waltz, R. E. and Schmitz, L. and Tynan, G. R.},
abstractNote = {The deployment of multiple high-resolution, spatially localized fluctuation diagnostics on the DIII-D tokamak opens the door to a new level of core turbulence model validation. Toward this end, the implementation of synthetic diagnostics that model physical beam emission spectroscopy and correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostics is presented. Initial results from their applications to local gyrokinetic simulations of two locations in a DIII-D L-mode discharge performed with the GYRO code are also discussed. At normalized toroidal flux ρ = 0.5, we find very good agreement between experiment and simulation in both the energy flows and fluctuation levels measured by both diagnostics. However, at ρ = 0.75, GYRO underpredicts the observed energy flows by roughly a factor of 7, with rms fluctuation levels underpredicted by a factor of 3. Interestingly, at both locations we find good agreement in the shapes of the radial and vertical density correlation functions and in the shapes of the frequency power spectra. Here, at both locations, the attenuation of the GYRO-predicted fluctuations due to the spatial averaging imposed by the diagnostics’ spot sizes is significant, and its incorporation via the use of synthetic diagnostics is shown to be essential for quantitative comparisons such as these.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3085792},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 87 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Validating simulations of core tokamak turbulence: current status and future directions
journal, July 2008


An Eulerian gyrokinetic-Maxwell solver
journal, April 2003


Zonal-Flow Dynamics and Size Scaling of Anomalous Transport
journal, February 2004


Flow shear induced fluctuation suppression in finite aspect ratio shaped tokamak plasma
journal, May 1995

  • Hahm, T. S.; Burrell, K. H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.871313

Three‐dimensional fluid simulations of the nonlinear drift‐resistive ballooning modes in tokamak edge plasmas
journal, October 1993

  • Guzdar, P. N.; Drake, J. F.; McCarthy, D.
  • Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 5, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.860842

On the dynamics of edge-core coupling
journal, September 2005

  • Hahm, T. S.; Diamond, P. H.; Lin, Z.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2034307

Radial propagation of turbulence in tokamaks
journal, July 1994


Plasma Turbulence Imaging via Beam Emission Spectroscopy in the Core of the DIII-D Tokamak
journal, January 2007

  • McKEE, George R.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Gupta, Deepak K.
  • Plasma and Fusion Research, Vol. 2
  • DOI: 10.1585/pfr.2.S1025

Spatial transfer function for the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic on DIII-D
journal, October 2006

  • Shafer, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2221908

Edge gyrokinetic theory and continuum simulations
journal, July 2007


Numerical study of neoclassical plasma pedestal in a tokamak geometry
journal, May 2004

  • Chang, C. S.; Ku, Seunghoe; Weitzner, H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1707024

Foundations of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory
journal, April 2007


Gyrokinetic simulations of off-axis minimum-q profile corrugations
journal, May 2006

  • Waltz, R. E.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 13, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2195418

A design retrospective of the DIII-D tokamak
journal, May 2002


Experimental measurement of three‐wave coupling and energy cascading
journal, January 1989

  • Ritz, Ch. P.; Powers, E. J.; Bengtson, R. D.
  • Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.859082

Evolution of transport through the L-H transition in JET
journal, May 1995


Dynamics of axisymmetric and poloidal flows in tokamaks
journal, January 1999


System for simulating fluctuation diagnostics for application to turbulence computations
journal, January 2006

  • Bravenec, R. V.; Nevins, W. M.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2151857

Anomalous Transport Scaling in the DIII-D Tokamak Matched by Supercomputer Simulation
journal, July 2003


Drift waves and transport
journal, April 1999


Linearized gyro-kinetic equation with collisions
journal, January 1977

  • Catto, P. J.; Tsang, K. T.
  • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.861902

Turbulence spreading into the linearly stable zone and transport scaling
journal, April 2004


Measurements of core electron temperature and density fluctuations in DIII-D and comparison to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations
journal, May 2008

  • White, A. E.; Schmitz, L.; McKee, G. R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2895408

On the dynamics of turbulent transport near marginal stability
journal, October 1995

  • Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.871063

Heuristic theory of nonlocally broken gyro-Bohm scaling
journal, July 2005

  • Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1947467

Validation in fusion research: Towards guidelines and best practices
journal, June 2008

  • Terry, P. W.; Greenwald, M.; Leboeuf, J. -N.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2928909

Zonal flows in plasma—a review
journal, April 2005


Ion temperature gradient turbulence simulations and plasma flux surface shape
journal, November 1999

  • Waltz, R. E.; Miller, R. L.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.873694

The local limit of global gyrokinetic simulations
journal, May 2004

  • Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Dorland, W.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1695358

Millimeter-wave backscatter diagnostic for the study of short scale length plasma fluctuations (invited)
journal, October 2006

  • Rhodes, T. L.; Peebles, W. A.; Nguyen, X.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 77, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2235874

Comparisons and physics basis of tokamak transport models and turbulence simulations
journal, March 2000

  • Dimits, A. M.; Bateman, G.; Beer, M. A.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.873896

Projected profile similarity in gyrokinetic simulations of Bohm and gyro-Bohm scaled DIII-D L and H modes
journal, July 2006

  • Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 13, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2218811

Noncircular, finite aspect ratio, local equilibrium model
journal, April 1998

  • Miller, R. L.; Chu, M. S.; Greene, J. M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.872666

Quantitative density fluctuation measurements utilizing quadrature reflectometers on DIII-D
journal, August 2006


Zonal-flow-driven nonlinear energy transfer in experiment and simulation
journal, May 2007

  • Holland, C.; Tynan, G. R.; Fonck, R. J.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2716409

Chapter 1: Overview and summary
journal, June 2007


Ion collection by a sphere in a flowing plasma: 2. non-zero Debye length
journal, July 2003


Chapter 2: Plasma confinement and transport
journal, June 2007

  • Physics), E. J. Doyle (Chair Transport; Modelling), W. A. Houlberg (Chair Confinement Da; Edge), Y. Kamada (Chair Pedestal and
  • Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 47, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/0029-5515/47/6/S02

Geodesic Acoustic Waves in Hydromagnetic Systems
journal, January 1968


Dynamics of turbulence spreading in magnetically confined plasmas
journal, March 2005

  • Gürcan, Ö. D.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1853385

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Feasibility study for a correlation electron cyclotron emission turbulence diagnostic based on nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations
    journal, September 2011


    Feasibility study for a correlation electron cyclotron emission turbulence diagnostic based on nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations
    journal, September 2011


    Validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic transport models using turbulence measurements
    journal, February 2019


    Verification and validation for magnetic fusion
    journal, May 2010


    Experimental investigation of geodesic acoustic mode spatial structure, intermittency, and interaction with turbulence in the DIII-D tokamak
    journal, February 2012

    • Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Carter, T. A.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 19, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3678210

    A verification of the gyrokinetic microstability codes GEM, GYRO, and GS2
    journal, October 2013

    • Bravenec, R. V.; Chen, Y.; Candy, J.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 20, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4826511

    20 years of research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamaka)
    journal, November 2014

    • Greenwald, M.; Bader, A.; Baek, S.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 21, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4901920

    Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas
    journal, June 2015

    • Mikkelsen, D. R.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4922069

    Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport
    journal, June 2016


    Chaotic edge density fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak
    journal, April 2017

    • Zhu, Z.; White, A. E.; Carter, T. A.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 24, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4978784

    Correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and improved calculation of turbulent temperature fluctuation levels on ASDEX Upgrade
    journal, May 2018

    • Creely, A. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Burke, W. M.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 89, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5005507

    Verification of GENE and GYRO with L-mode and I-mode plasmas in Alcator C-Mod
    journal, April 2018

    • Mikkelsen, D. R.; Howard, N. T.; White, A. E.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5018741

    Extracting the turbulent flow-field from beam emission spectroscopy images using velocimetry
    journal, October 2018

    • Kriete, D. M.; McKee, G. R.; Fonck, R. J.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 89, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5036535

    Gyrokinetic GENE simulations of DIII-D near-edge L-mode plasmas
    journal, September 2019

    • Neiser, T. F.; Jenko, F.; Carter, T. A.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5052047

    VITALS: A Surrogate-Based Optimization Framework for the Accelerated Validation of Plasma Transport Codes
    journal, February 2018


    Towards an emerging understanding of non-locality phenomena and non-local transport
    journal, January 2015


    Distinct turbulence sources and confinement features in the spherical tokamak plasma regime
    journal, October 2015


    Ballistic propagation of turbulence front in tokamak edge plasmas
    journal, October 2012


    Comparison between measured and predicted turbulence frequency spectra in ITG and TEM regimes
    journal, May 2017

    • Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Bernardo, J.
    • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 59, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa6d1d

    Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulations of an Alcator C-Mod, ELM-y H-mode plasma
    journal, November 2017

    • Howard, N. T.; Holland, C.; White, A. E.
    • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 60, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aa9148

    Initial transport and turbulence analysis and gyrokinetic simulation validation in NSTX-U L-mode plasmas
    journal, April 2019


    Role of Microtearing Turbulence in DIII-D High Bootstrap Current Fraction Plasmas
    journal, November 2019