skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Anisotropies in the Neutrino Fluxes and Heating Profiles in Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations of Rotating Core-Collapse Supernovae

Abstract

Using the two-dimensional, multigroup, flux-limited diffusion version of the code VULCAN/2D, which also incorporates rotation, we have calculated the collapse, bounce, shock formation, and early postbounce evolutionary phases of a core-collapse supernova for a variety of initial rotation rates. This is the first series of such multigroup calculations undertaken in supernova theory with fully multidimensional tools. We find that although rotation generates pole-to-equator angular anisotropies in the neutrino radiation fields, the magnitude of the asymmetries is not as large as previously estimated. The finite width of the neutrino decoupling surfaces and the significant emissivity above the τ = 2/3 surface moderate the angular contrast. Moreover, we find that the radiation field is always more spherically symmetric than the matter distribution, with its plumes and convective eddies. The radiation field at a point is an integral over many sources from the different contributing directions. As such, its distribution is much smoother than that of the matter and has very little power at high spatial frequencies. We present the dependence of the angular anisotropy of the neutrino fields on neutrino species, neutrino energy, and initial rotation rate. Only for our most rapidly rotating model do we start to see qualitatively different hydrodynamics,more » but for the lower rates consistent with the precollapse rotational profiles derived in the literature the anisotropies, although interesting, are modest. This does not mean that rotation does not play a key role in supernova dynamics. Finally, the decrease in the effective gravity due to the centripetal effect can be quite important. Rather, it means that when a realistic mapping between initial and final rotational profiles and two-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics are incorporated into collapse simulations, the anisotropy of the radiation fields may be only a secondary, not a pivotal, factor in the supernova mechanism.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  2. Max-Planck-Inst. für Gravitationsphysik, Potsdam (Germany)
  3. Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1564616
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 626; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; astronomy & astrophysics; hydrodynamics; neutrinos; radiative transfer; stars; rotation; supernovae

Citation Formats

Walder, R., Burrows, A., Ott, C. D., Livne, E., Lichtenstadt, I., and Jarrah, M. Anisotropies in the Neutrino Fluxes and Heating Profiles in Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations of Rotating Core-Collapse Supernovae. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1086/429816.
Walder, R., Burrows, A., Ott, C. D., Livne, E., Lichtenstadt, I., & Jarrah, M. Anisotropies in the Neutrino Fluxes and Heating Profiles in Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations of Rotating Core-Collapse Supernovae. United States. doi:10.1086/429816.
Walder, R., Burrows, A., Ott, C. D., Livne, E., Lichtenstadt, I., and Jarrah, M. Fri . "Anisotropies in the Neutrino Fluxes and Heating Profiles in Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations of Rotating Core-Collapse Supernovae". United States. doi:10.1086/429816. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1564616.
@article{osti_1564616,
title = {Anisotropies in the Neutrino Fluxes and Heating Profiles in Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Multigroup Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations of Rotating Core-Collapse Supernovae},
author = {Walder, R. and Burrows, A. and Ott, C. D. and Livne, E. and Lichtenstadt, I. and Jarrah, M.},
abstractNote = {Using the two-dimensional, multigroup, flux-limited diffusion version of the code VULCAN/2D, which also incorporates rotation, we have calculated the collapse, bounce, shock formation, and early postbounce evolutionary phases of a core-collapse supernova for a variety of initial rotation rates. This is the first series of such multigroup calculations undertaken in supernova theory with fully multidimensional tools. We find that although rotation generates pole-to-equator angular anisotropies in the neutrino radiation fields, the magnitude of the asymmetries is not as large as previously estimated. The finite width of the neutrino decoupling surfaces and the significant emissivity above the τ = 2/3 surface moderate the angular contrast. Moreover, we find that the radiation field is always more spherically symmetric than the matter distribution, with its plumes and convective eddies. The radiation field at a point is an integral over many sources from the different contributing directions. As such, its distribution is much smoother than that of the matter and has very little power at high spatial frequencies. We present the dependence of the angular anisotropy of the neutrino fields on neutrino species, neutrino energy, and initial rotation rate. Only for our most rapidly rotating model do we start to see qualitatively different hydrodynamics, but for the lower rates consistent with the precollapse rotational profiles derived in the literature the anisotropies, although interesting, are modest. This does not mean that rotation does not play a key role in supernova dynamics. Finally, the decrease in the effective gravity due to the centripetal effect can be quite important. Rather, it means that when a realistic mapping between initial and final rotational profiles and two-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics are incorporated into collapse simulations, the anisotropy of the radiation fields may be only a secondary, not a pivotal, factor in the supernova mechanism.},
doi = {10.1086/429816},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = [1],
volume = [626],
place = {United States},
year = {2005},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 73 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Shock Breakout in Core‐Collapse Supernovae and Its Neutrino Signature
journal, July 2003

  • Thompson, Todd A.; Burrows, Adam; Pinto, Philip A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 592, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/375701

A Million Second Chandra View of Cassiopeia A
journal, October 2004

  • Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin; Badenes, Carles
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 615, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/426186

On the Nature of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions
journal, September 1995

  • Burrows, Adam; Hayes, John; Fryxell, Bruce A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 450
  • DOI: 10.1086/176188

The mechanism of core-collapse supernovae and the ejection of heavy elements
journal, May 2003


Gravitational Waves from Axisymmetric, Rotating Stellar Core Collapse
journal, January 2004

  • Ott, Christian D.; Burrows, Adam; Livne, Eli
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 600, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/379822

Improved Models of Stellar Core Collapse and Still No Explosions: What Is Missing?
journal, June 2003


X-ray spectral imaging and Doppler mapping of Cassiopeia A
journal, January 2002

  • Willingale, R.; Bleeker, J. A. M.; van der Heyden, K. J.
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 381, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011614

The Axisymmetric Ejecta of Supernova 1987A
journal, November 2002

  • Wang, L.; Wheeler, J. C.; Hoflich, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/342824

Inside the supernova: A powerful convective engine
journal, November 1994

  • Herant, Marc; Benz, Willy; Hix, W. Raphael
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 435
  • DOI: 10.1086/174817

Two‐dimensional, Time‐dependent, Multigroup, Multiangle Radiation Hydrodynamics Test Simulation in the Core‐Collapse Supernova Context
journal, July 2004

  • Livne, Eli; Burrows, Adam; Walder, Rolf
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 609, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421012

Probing the gravitational well: No supernova explosion in spherical symmetry with general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport
journal, April 2001

  • Liebendörfer, Matthias; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl
  • Physical Review D, Vol. 63, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.63.103004

Effects of Rotation on the Revival of a Stalled Shock in Supernova Explosions
journal, April 2005

  • Yamasaki, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shoichi
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 623, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/428496

Spectropolarimetry of the Type Ic Supernova SN 2002ap in M74: More Evidence for Asymmetric Core Collapse
journal, July 2003

  • Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; Hoflich, Peter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 592, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/375576

Modeling Core-Collapse Supernovae in Three Dimensions
journal, July 2002

  • Fryer, Chris L.; Warren, Michael S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 574, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/342258

Core‐Collapse Simulations of Rotating Stars
journal, October 2000

  • Fryer, Chris L.; Heger, Alexander
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 541, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/309446

The Evolution and Explosion of Massive Stars. II. Explosive Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
journal, November 1995

  • Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, Thomas A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 101
  • DOI: 10.1086/192237

Effect of Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation on Supernova Explosion Energy
journal, May 2001

  • Shimizu, Tetsuya M.; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sato, Katsuhiko
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 552, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/320544

Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation in Rotational Core Collapse
journal, September 2003

  • Kotake, Kei; Yamada, Shoichi; Sato, Katsuhiko
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 595, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/377196

A New Algorithm for Supernova Neutrino Transport and Some Applications
journal, August 2000

  • Burrows, Adam; Young, Timothy; Pinto, Philip
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 539, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/309244

Stellar core collapse - Numerical model and infall epoch
journal, August 1985

  • Bruenn, S. W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 58
  • DOI: 10.1086/191056

Presupernova Evolution of Rotating Massive Stars. I. Numerical Method and Evolution of the Internal Stellar Structure
journal, January 2000

  • Heger, A.; Langer, N.; Woosley, S. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 528, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308158

Stellar evolution with rotation: XII. Pre-supernova models
journal, September 2004


A generalized equation of state for hot, dense matter
journal, December 1991


The mass and energy budget of Cassiopeia A
journal, January 2003

  • Willingale, R.; Bleeker, J. A. M.; van der Heyden, K. J.
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 398, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021554

Presupernova Evolution of Differentially Rotating Massive Stars Including Magnetic Fields
journal, June 2005

  • Heger, A.; Woosley, S. E.; Spruit, H. C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 626, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/429868

Revival of a stalled supernova shock by neutrino heating
journal, August 1985

  • Bethe, H. A.; Wilson, J. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 295
  • DOI: 10.1086/163343

Importance of Prolate Neutrino Radiation in Core-Collapse Supernovae: The Reason for the Prolate Geometry of SN1987A?
journal, August 2004

  • Madokoro, Hideki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Motizuki, Yuko
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 56, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/56.4.663

Pulsar Recoil by Large-Scale Anisotropies in Supernova Explosions
journal, January 2004


The Collapse of Rotating Massive Stars in Three Dimensions
journal, January 2004

  • Fryer, Chris L.; Warren, Michael S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 601, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/380193

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    On the spherical-axial transition in supernova remnants
    journal, October 2011


    X-ray spectral imaging and Doppler mapping of Cassiopeia A
    journal, January 2002

    • Willingale, R.; Bleeker, J. A. M.; van der Heyden, K. J.
    • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 381, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011614

    The mass and energy budget of Cassiopeia A
    journal, January 2003

    • Willingale, R.; Bleeker, J. A. M.; van der Heyden, K. J.
    • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 398, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021554

    Stellar evolution with rotation: XII. Pre-supernova models
    journal, September 2004


    Revival of a stalled supernova shock by neutrino heating
    journal, August 1985

    • Bethe, H. A.; Wilson, J. R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 295
    • DOI: 10.1086/163343

    Inside the supernova: A powerful convective engine
    journal, November 1994

    • Herant, Marc; Benz, Willy; Hix, W. Raphael
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 435
    • DOI: 10.1086/174817

    On the Nature of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions
    journal, September 1995

    • Burrows, Adam; Hayes, John; Fryxell, Bruce A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 450
    • DOI: 10.1086/176188

    Stellar core collapse - Numerical model and infall epoch
    journal, August 1985

    • Bruenn, S. W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 58
    • DOI: 10.1086/191056

    The Evolution and Explosion of Massive Stars. II. Explosive Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
    journal, November 1995

    • Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, Thomas A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 101
    • DOI: 10.1086/192237

    Presupernova Evolution of Rotating Massive Stars. I. Numerical Method and Evolution of the Internal Stellar Structure
    journal, January 2000

    • Heger, A.; Langer, N.; Woosley, S. E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 528, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/308158

    A New Algorithm for Supernova Neutrino Transport and Some Applications
    journal, August 2000

    • Burrows, Adam; Young, Timothy; Pinto, Philip
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 539, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/309244

    Core‐Collapse Simulations of Rotating Stars
    journal, October 2000

    • Fryer, Chris L.; Heger, Alexander
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 541, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/309446

    Effect of Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation on Supernova Explosion Energy
    journal, May 2001

    • Shimizu, Tetsuya M.; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sato, Katsuhiko
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 552, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/320544

    Modeling Core-Collapse Supernovae in Three Dimensions
    journal, July 2002

    • Fryer, Chris L.; Warren, Michael S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 574, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/342258

    The Axisymmetric Ejecta of Supernova 1987A
    journal, November 2002

    • Wang, L.; Wheeler, J. C.; Hoflich, P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/342824

    Spectropolarimetry of the Type Ic Supernova SN 2002ap in M74: More Evidence for Asymmetric Core Collapse
    journal, July 2003

    • Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; Hoflich, Peter
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 592, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/375576

    Shock Breakout in Core‐Collapse Supernovae and Its Neutrino Signature
    journal, July 2003

    • Thompson, Todd A.; Burrows, Adam; Pinto, Philip A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 592, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/375701

    Anisotropic Neutrino Radiation in Rotational Core Collapse
    journal, September 2003

    • Kotake, Kei; Yamada, Shoichi; Sato, Katsuhiko
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 595, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/377196

    Gravitational Waves from Axisymmetric, Rotating Stellar Core Collapse
    journal, January 2004

    • Ott, Christian D.; Burrows, Adam; Livne, Eli
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 600, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/379822

    The Collapse of Rotating Massive Stars in Three Dimensions
    journal, January 2004

    • Fryer, Chris L.; Warren, Michael S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 601, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/380193

    Two‐dimensional, Time‐dependent, Multigroup, Multiangle Radiation Hydrodynamics Test Simulation in the Core‐Collapse Supernova Context
    journal, July 2004

    • Livne, Eli; Burrows, Adam; Walder, Rolf
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 609, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/421012

    A Million Second Chandra View of Cassiopeia A
    journal, October 2004

    • Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin; Badenes, Carles
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 615, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/426186

    Effects of Rotation on the Revival of a Stalled Shock in Supernova Explosions
    journal, April 2005

    • Yamasaki, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shoichi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 623, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/428496

    Presupernova Evolution of Differentially Rotating Massive Stars Including Magnetic Fields
    journal, June 2005

    • Heger, A.; Woosley, S. E.; Spruit, H. C.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 626, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/429868

    The Expansion Asymmetry and Age of the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant
    journal, July 2006

    • Fesen, Robert A.; Hammell, Molly C.; Morse, Jon
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 645, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/504254

    Importance of Prolate Neutrino Radiation in Core-Collapse Supernovae: The Reason for the Prolate Geometry of SN1987A?
    journal, August 2004

    • Madokoro, Hideki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Motizuki, Yuko
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 56, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/56.4.663

    Prospective constraints on neutrino masses from a core-collapse supernova
    journal, May 2012