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Title: Dichotomy of the photo-induced 2-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO 3 surface terminations

Abstract

Oxide materials are important candidates for the next generation of electronics due to a wide array of desired properties, which they can exhibit alone or when combined with other materials. While SrTiO3(STO) is often considered a prototypical oxide, it, too, hosts a wide array of unusual properties, including a 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which can form at the surface when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Using layer-by-layer growth of high-quality STO films, we show that the 2DEG only forms with the SrO termination and not with the TiO2termination, contrary to expectation. This dichotomy of the observed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra is similarly seen in BaTiO3(BTO), in which the 2DEG is only observed for BaO-terminated films. These results will allow for a deeper understanding and better control of the electronic structure of titanate films, substrates, and heterostructures.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [3]
  1. Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305,, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025,
  2. Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025,, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305,
  3. Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025,
  4. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025
  5. Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305,, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025,, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305,
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stanford Univ., CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1564304
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1545528
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 116 Journal Issue: 34; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Rebec, Slavko N., Jia, Tao, Sohail, Hafiz M., Hashimoto, Makoto, Lu, Donghui, Shen, Zhi-Xun, and Moore, Robert G. Dichotomy of the photo-induced 2-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO 3 surface terminations. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821937116.
Rebec, Slavko N., Jia, Tao, Sohail, Hafiz M., Hashimoto, Makoto, Lu, Donghui, Shen, Zhi-Xun, & Moore, Robert G. Dichotomy of the photo-induced 2-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO 3 surface terminations. United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821937116
Rebec, Slavko N., Jia, Tao, Sohail, Hafiz M., Hashimoto, Makoto, Lu, Donghui, Shen, Zhi-Xun, and Moore, Robert G. Wed . "Dichotomy of the photo-induced 2-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO 3 surface terminations". United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821937116.
@article{osti_1564304,
title = {Dichotomy of the photo-induced 2-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO 3 surface terminations},
author = {Rebec, Slavko N. and Jia, Tao and Sohail, Hafiz M. and Hashimoto, Makoto and Lu, Donghui and Shen, Zhi-Xun and Moore, Robert G.},
abstractNote = {Oxide materials are important candidates for the next generation of electronics due to a wide array of desired properties, which they can exhibit alone or when combined with other materials. While SrTiO3(STO) is often considered a prototypical oxide, it, too, hosts a wide array of unusual properties, including a 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which can form at the surface when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. Using layer-by-layer growth of high-quality STO films, we show that the 2DEG only forms with the SrO termination and not with the TiO2termination, contrary to expectation. This dichotomy of the observed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra is similarly seen in BaTiO3(BTO), in which the 2DEG is only observed for BaO-terminated films. These results will allow for a deeper understanding and better control of the electronic structure of titanate films, substrates, and heterostructures.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1821937116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 34,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821937116

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Each row of the figure corresponds to different STO growth recipes: Normal TiO2 terminated STO, SrO Capped STO, SrO buffer followed by STO, and Ti deficient STO, respectively. The left column, a), d), g), j) are RHEED oscillations for films with different recipes. The background color represents whichmore » shutter was open, blue for Ti and green for Sr. The small arrow marks the intensity at the end of growth. The center column b), e), h), k) are ARPES spectra collected for each recipe once it was fully saturated. Each measurement was taken at a photon energy of 74 eV with the sample at 30 K. The right column c), f), i), l) are schematic diagrams which represents the final structure after growth is completed.« less

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.