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Title: Characteristics of free air carbon dioxide enrichment of a northern temperate mature forest

Abstract

In 2017, the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR) began to conduct Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) within a mature broadleaf deciduous forest situated in the United Kingdom. BIFoR FACE employs large-scale infrastructure, in the form of lattice towers, forming 'arrays' which encircle a forest plot of ~30 m diameter. BIFoR FACE consists of three treatment arrays to elevate local CO 2 concentrations (e[CO 2]) by +150 µmol/mol. In practice, acceptable operational enrichment (ambient [CO 2] + e[CO 2]) is ±20% of the set point 1-min average target. There are a further three arrays that replicate the infrastructure and deliver ambient air as paired controls for the treatment arrays. For the first growing season with e[CO 2] (April to November 2017), [CO 2] measurements in treatment and control arrays show that the target concentration was successfully delivered, that is: +147 ± 21 µmol/mol (mean ± SD) or 98 ± 14% of set point enrichment target. e[CO 2] treatment was accomplished for 97.7% of the scheduled operation time, with the remaining time lost due to engineering faults (0.6% of the time), CO 2 supply issues (0.6%) or adverse weather conditions (1.1%). CO 2 demand in the facility was driven predominantlymore » by wind speed and the formation of the deciduous canopy. Deviations greater than 10% from the ambient baseline CO 2 occurred <1% of the time in control arrays. Incidences of cross-contamination >80 µmol/mol (i.e. >53% of the treatment increment) into control arrays accounted for <0.1% of the enrichment period. The median [CO 2] values in reconstructed three-dimensional [CO 2] fields show enrichment somewhat lower than the target but still well above ambient. The data presented here provide confidence in the facility setup and can be used to guide future next-generation forest FACE facilities built into tall and complex forest stands.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom)
  2. Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Yorkshire Water, Bradford (United Kingdom)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Central Queensland Univ., Rockhampton, Qld (Australia)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1564278
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1564279; OSTI ID: 1569550
Report Number(s):
BNL-212169-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; SC0016011
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Global Change Biology; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; deciduous; elevated carbon dioxide; FACE; oak; performance; Quercus robur; United Kingdom; Woodland

Citation Formats

Hart, Kris M., Curioni, Giulio, Blaen, Phillip, Harper, Nicholas J., Miles, Peter, Lewin, Keith F., Nagy, John, Bannister, Edward J., Cai, Xiaoming M., Thomas, Rick M., Krause, Stefan, Tausz, Michael, and MacKenzie, A. Robert. Characteristics of free air carbon dioxide enrichment of a northern temperate mature forest. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1111/gcb.14786.
Hart, Kris M., Curioni, Giulio, Blaen, Phillip, Harper, Nicholas J., Miles, Peter, Lewin, Keith F., Nagy, John, Bannister, Edward J., Cai, Xiaoming M., Thomas, Rick M., Krause, Stefan, Tausz, Michael, & MacKenzie, A. Robert. Characteristics of free air carbon dioxide enrichment of a northern temperate mature forest. United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14786.
Hart, Kris M., Curioni, Giulio, Blaen, Phillip, Harper, Nicholas J., Miles, Peter, Lewin, Keith F., Nagy, John, Bannister, Edward J., Cai, Xiaoming M., Thomas, Rick M., Krause, Stefan, Tausz, Michael, and MacKenzie, A. Robert. Sat . "Characteristics of free air carbon dioxide enrichment of a northern temperate mature forest". United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14786.
@article{osti_1564278,
title = {Characteristics of free air carbon dioxide enrichment of a northern temperate mature forest},
author = {Hart, Kris M. and Curioni, Giulio and Blaen, Phillip and Harper, Nicholas J. and Miles, Peter and Lewin, Keith F. and Nagy, John and Bannister, Edward J. and Cai, Xiaoming M. and Thomas, Rick M. and Krause, Stefan and Tausz, Michael and MacKenzie, A. Robert},
abstractNote = {In 2017, the Birmingham Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR) began to conduct Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) within a mature broadleaf deciduous forest situated in the United Kingdom. BIFoR FACE employs large-scale infrastructure, in the form of lattice towers, forming 'arrays' which encircle a forest plot of ~30 m diameter. BIFoR FACE consists of three treatment arrays to elevate local CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) by +150 µmol/mol. In practice, acceptable operational enrichment (ambient [CO2] + e[CO2]) is ±20% of the set point 1-min average target. There are a further three arrays that replicate the infrastructure and deliver ambient air as paired controls for the treatment arrays. For the first growing season with e[CO2] (April to November 2017), [CO2] measurements in treatment and control arrays show that the target concentration was successfully delivered, that is: +147 ± 21 µmol/mol (mean ± SD) or 98 ± 14% of set point enrichment target. e[CO2] treatment was accomplished for 97.7% of the scheduled operation time, with the remaining time lost due to engineering faults (0.6% of the time), CO2 supply issues (0.6%) or adverse weather conditions (1.1%). CO2 demand in the facility was driven predominantly by wind speed and the formation of the deciduous canopy. Deviations greater than 10% from the ambient baseline CO2 occurred <1% of the time in control arrays. Incidences of cross-contamination >80 µmol/mol (i.e. >53% of the treatment increment) into control arrays accounted for <0.1% of the enrichment period. The median [CO2] values in reconstructed three-dimensional [CO2] fields show enrichment somewhat lower than the target but still well above ambient. The data presented here provide confidence in the facility setup and can be used to guide future next-generation forest FACE facilities built into tall and complex forest stands.},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.14786},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14786

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: FACE array geometries. *The internal radius is defined as the mean distance between the central tower and inside edge of the towers supporting the vent pipes. Arrays are designated fumigation ‘(f)’ or control ‘(c)’.

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