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Title: Volcanoes Erupt Stressed Quartz Crystals

Abstract

Volcanic eruptions are energetic events driven by the imbalance of magmatic forces. The magnitudes of these forces remain poorly constrained because they operate in regions that are inaccessible, either underground or dangerous to approach. New techniques are needed to quantify the processes that drive eruptions and to probe magma storage conditions. Here we present X-ray microdiffraction measurements of volcanic stress imparted as lattice distortions to the crystal cargo of magma from Yellowstone and Long Valley eruptions. Elevated residual stresses between 100 and 300 MPa are preserved in erupted quartz. Multiple volcanic forces could be culpable for the deformation so we analyzed crystals from pyroclastic falls, pyroclastic density currents, and effusive lavas. In conclusion, stresses are preserved in all quartz but cannot be attributed to differences in eruption style. Instead, lattice deformation likely preserves an in situ measurement of the deviatoric stresses required for the brittle failure of viscous, crystal-bearing glass during ascent.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1564066
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Yellowstone; force chain; synchrotron; diffraction; supereruption; fragmentation

Citation Formats

Befus, Kenneth S., Manga, M., Stan, C., and Tamura, N. Volcanoes Erupt Stressed Quartz Crystals. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1029/2019gl083619.
Befus, Kenneth S., Manga, M., Stan, C., & Tamura, N. Volcanoes Erupt Stressed Quartz Crystals. United States. doi:10.1029/2019gl083619.
Befus, Kenneth S., Manga, M., Stan, C., and Tamura, N. Mon . "Volcanoes Erupt Stressed Quartz Crystals". United States. doi:10.1029/2019gl083619.
@article{osti_1564066,
title = {Volcanoes Erupt Stressed Quartz Crystals},
author = {Befus, Kenneth S. and Manga, M. and Stan, C. and Tamura, N.},
abstractNote = {Volcanic eruptions are energetic events driven by the imbalance of magmatic forces. The magnitudes of these forces remain poorly constrained because they operate in regions that are inaccessible, either underground or dangerous to approach. New techniques are needed to quantify the processes that drive eruptions and to probe magma storage conditions. Here we present X-ray microdiffraction measurements of volcanic stress imparted as lattice distortions to the crystal cargo of magma from Yellowstone and Long Valley eruptions. Elevated residual stresses between 100 and 300 MPa are preserved in erupted quartz. Multiple volcanic forces could be culpable for the deformation so we analyzed crystals from pyroclastic falls, pyroclastic density currents, and effusive lavas. In conclusion, stresses are preserved in all quartz but cannot be attributed to differences in eruption style. Instead, lattice deformation likely preserves an in situ measurement of the deviatoric stresses required for the brittle failure of viscous, crystal-bearing glass during ascent.},
doi = {10.1029/2019gl083619},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 15,
volume = 46,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
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