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Title: Evaluating the QSO contribution to the 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn

Abstract

The upcoming radio interferometer Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is expected to directly detect the redshifted 21-cm signal from the neutral hydrogen present during the Cosmic Dawn. Temperature fluctuations from X-ray heating of the neutral intergalactic medium can dominate the fluctuations in the 21-cm signal from this time. This heating depends on the abundance, clustering, and properties of the X-ray sources present, which remain highly uncertain. We present a suite of three new large-volume, 349\,Mpc a side, fully numerical radiative transfer simulations including QSO-like sources, extending the work previously presented in Ross et al. (2017). The results show that our QSOs have a modest contribution to the heating budget, yet significantly impact the 21-cm signal. Initially, the power spectrum is boosted on large scales by heating from the biased QSO-like sources, before decreasing on all scales. Fluctuations from images of the 21-cm signal with resolutions corresponding to SKA1-Low at the appropriate redshifts are well above the expected noise for deep integrations, indicating that imaging could be feasible for all the X-ray source models considered. The most notable contribution of the QSOs is a dramatic increase in non-Gaussianity of the signal, as measured by the skewness and kurtosis of the 21-cm probability distribution functions. Furthermore, in the case of late Lyman-$$\alpha$$ saturation, this non-Gaussianity could be dramatically decreased particularly when heating occurs earlier. We conclude that increased non-Gaussianity is a promising signature of rare X-ray sources at this time, provided that Lyman-$$\alpha$$ saturation occurs before heating dominates the 21-cm signal.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)
  2. Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); New York Univ. Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
  3. Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)
  4. Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1564050
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 487; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; radiative transfer; cosmology: dark ages; reionizaion; first stars; galaxies: quasars: general; intergalactic medium; cosmology: theory; cosmology: large-scale structure of Universe

Citation Formats

Ross, Hannah E., Dixon, Keri L., Ghara, Raghunath, Iliev, Ilian T., and Mellema, Garrelt. Evaluating the QSO contribution to the 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1220.
Ross, Hannah E., Dixon, Keri L., Ghara, Raghunath, Iliev, Ilian T., & Mellema, Garrelt. Evaluating the QSO contribution to the 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1220.
Ross, Hannah E., Dixon, Keri L., Ghara, Raghunath, Iliev, Ilian T., and Mellema, Garrelt. Sat . "Evaluating the QSO contribution to the 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1220.
@article{osti_1564050,
title = {Evaluating the QSO contribution to the 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn},
author = {Ross, Hannah E. and Dixon, Keri L. and Ghara, Raghunath and Iliev, Ilian T. and Mellema, Garrelt},
abstractNote = {The upcoming radio interferometer Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is expected to directly detect the redshifted 21-cm signal from the neutral hydrogen present during the Cosmic Dawn. Temperature fluctuations from X-ray heating of the neutral intergalactic medium can dominate the fluctuations in the 21-cm signal from this time. This heating depends on the abundance, clustering, and properties of the X-ray sources present, which remain highly uncertain. We present a suite of three new large-volume, 349\,Mpc a side, fully numerical radiative transfer simulations including QSO-like sources, extending the work previously presented in Ross et al. (2017). The results show that our QSOs have a modest contribution to the heating budget, yet significantly impact the 21-cm signal. Initially, the power spectrum is boosted on large scales by heating from the biased QSO-like sources, before decreasing on all scales. Fluctuations from images of the 21-cm signal with resolutions corresponding to SKA1-Low at the appropriate redshifts are well above the expected noise for deep integrations, indicating that imaging could be feasible for all the X-ray source models considered. The most notable contribution of the QSOs is a dramatic increase in non-Gaussianity of the signal, as measured by the skewness and kurtosis of the 21-cm probability distribution functions. Furthermore, in the case of late Lyman-$\alpha$ saturation, this non-Gaussianity could be dramatically decreased particularly when heating occurs earlier. We conclude that increased non-Gaussianity is a promising signature of rare X-ray sources at this time, provided that Lyman-$\alpha$ saturation occurs before heating dominates the 21-cm signal.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1220},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 487,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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Heating and ionization of the primordial intergalactic medium by high-mass X-ray binaries
journal, October 2014

  • Knevitt, G.; Wynn, G. A.; Power, C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 445, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1803

Reionization by UV or X-ray sources
journal, November 2010


A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization
journal, March 2015

  • Watson, Darach; Christensen, Lise; Knudsen, Kirsten Kraiberg
  • Nature, Vol. 519, Issue 7543
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14164

Constraining the topology of reionization through Lyα absorption
journal, November 2004


The GMRT Epoch of Reionization experiment: a new upper limit on the neutral hydrogen power spectrum at z≈ 8.6: The GMRT-EoR experiment: H i power spectrum
journal, March 2011


Bubble size statistics during reionization from 21-cm tomography
journal, October 2017

  • Giri, Sambit K.; Mellema, Garrelt; Dixon, Keri L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2539

The Thermal Proximity Effect: A New Probe of the He ii Reionization History and Quasar Lifetime
journal, March 2017

  • Khrykin, I. S.; Hennawi, J. F.; McQuinn, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 838, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa6621

The X-ray spectra of the first galaxies: 21 cm signatures
journal, July 2014

  • Pacucci, Fabio; Mesinger, Andrei; Mineo, Stefano
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1240

High-mass X-ray binaries and the cosmic 21-cm signal: impact of host galaxy absorption
journal, April 2017

  • Das, Arpan; Mesinger, Andrei; Pallottini, Andrea
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 469, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx943

On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to reionization
journal, January 2014


Active Galactic Nucleus Black Hole Masses and Bolometric Luminosities
journal, November 2002

  • Woo, Jong‐Hak; Urry, C. Megan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/342878

Can early dark energy explain EDGES?
journal, August 2018


Probing Individual Sources during Reionization and Cosmic Dawn using Square Kilometre Array HI 21-cm Observations
journal, November 2016

  • Datta, Kanan K.; Ghara, Raghunath; Majumdar, Suman
  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Vol. 37, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12036-016-9405-x

A long-term study of AGN X-ray variability: Structure function analysis on a ROSAT-XMM quasar sample
journal, March 2017