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Title: Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun's Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector

Abstract

We report on the observation of a deficit in the cosmic ray flux from the directions of the Moon and Sun with five years of data taken by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Between 2010 May and 2011 May the IceCube detector operated with 79 strings deployed in the glacial ice at the South Pole, and with 86 strings between 2011 May and 2015 May. A binned analysis is used to measure the relative deficit and significance of the cosmic ray shadows. Both the cosmic ray Moon and Sun shadows are detected with high statistical significance (>10σ) for each year. The results for the Moon shadow are consistent with previous analyses and verify the stability of the IceCube detector over time. This work represents the first observation of the Sun shadow with the IceCube detector. We show that the cosmic ray shadow of the Sun varies with time. Furthermore, these results make it possible to study cosmic ray transport near the Sun with future data from IceCube.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1564013
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 872; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic rays; ISM: magnetic fields; Moon; Sun: activity; sunspot

Citation Formats

Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barron, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kalaczynski, P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Lozano Mariscal, C. J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Unland Elorrieta, M. A., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Driessche, W., van Eijk, D., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Santen, J., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandler, F. D., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Yuan, T. Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun's Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaffd1.
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barron, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kalaczynski, P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Lozano Mariscal, C. J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Unland Elorrieta, M. A., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Driessche, W., van Eijk, D., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Santen, J., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandler, F. D., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., & Yuan, T. Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun's Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaffd1.
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barron, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kalaczynski, P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Lozano Mariscal, C. J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Unland Elorrieta, M. A., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Van Driessche, W., van Eijk, D., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Santen, J., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandler, F. D., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Yuan, T. Tue . "Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun's Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaffd1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1564013.
@article{osti_1564013,
title = {Detection of the Temporal Variation of the Sun's Cosmic Ray Shadow with the IceCube Detector},
author = {Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Argüelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barbano, A. and Barron, J. P. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker Tjus, J. and Becker, K. -H. and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Bos, F. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bretz, H. -P. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and Day, M. and de André, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and De Ridder, S. and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giang, W. and Glauch, T. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Hünnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kalaczynski, P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kroll, M. and Krückl, G. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, M. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Leonard, K. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Lozano Mariscal, C. J. and Lu, L. and Lünemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. 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abstractNote = {We report on the observation of a deficit in the cosmic ray flux from the directions of the Moon and Sun with five years of data taken by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Between 2010 May and 2011 May the IceCube detector operated with 79 strings deployed in the glacial ice at the South Pole, and with 86 strings between 2011 May and 2015 May. A binned analysis is used to measure the relative deficit and significance of the cosmic ray shadows. Both the cosmic ray Moon and Sun shadows are detected with high statistical significance (>10σ) for each year. The results for the Moon shadow are consistent with previous analyses and verify the stability of the IceCube detector over time. This work represents the first observation of the Sun shadow with the IceCube detector. We show that the cosmic ray shadow of the Sun varies with time. Furthermore, these results make it possible to study cosmic ray transport near the Sun with future data from IceCube.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaffd1},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 872,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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