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Title: CMOS-compatible, piezo-optomechanically tunable photonics for visible wavelengths and cryogenic temperatures

Abstract

We demonstrate a platform for phase and amplitude modulation in silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits via piezo-optomechanical coupling using tightly mechanically coupled aluminum nitride actuators. The platform, fabricated in a CMOS foundry, enables scalable active photonic integrated circuits for visible wavelengths, and the piezoelectric actuation functions without performance degradation down to cryogenic temperatures. As an example of the potential of the platform, we demonstrate a compact (~40 µm diameter) silicon nitride ring resonator modulator operating at 780 nm with intrinsic quality factors in excess of 1.5 million, >10 dB change in extinction ratio with 2 V applied, a switching time less than 4 ns, and a switching energy of 0.5 pJ/bit. We characterize the exemplary device at room temperature and 7 K. At 7 K, the device obtains a resistance of approximately 20 teraohms, allowing it to operate with sub-picowatt electrical power dissipation. We further demonstrate a Mach-Zehnder modulator constructed in the same platform with piezoelectrically tunable phase shifting arms, with 750 ns switching time constant and 20 nW steady-state power dissipation at room temperature.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1563021
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1574803
Report Number(s):
SAND2019-7490J
Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087; OPEXFF
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Optics Express Journal Volume: 27 Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher:
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Stanfield, P. R., Leenheer, A. J., Michael, C. P., Sims, R., and Eichenfield, M. CMOS-compatible, piezo-optomechanically tunable photonics for visible wavelengths and cryogenic temperatures. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1364/OE.27.028588.
Stanfield, P. R., Leenheer, A. J., Michael, C. P., Sims, R., & Eichenfield, M. CMOS-compatible, piezo-optomechanically tunable photonics for visible wavelengths and cryogenic temperatures. United States. doi:10.1364/OE.27.028588.
Stanfield, P. R., Leenheer, A. J., Michael, C. P., Sims, R., and Eichenfield, M. Fri . "CMOS-compatible, piezo-optomechanically tunable photonics for visible wavelengths and cryogenic temperatures". United States. doi:10.1364/OE.27.028588.
@article{osti_1563021,
title = {CMOS-compatible, piezo-optomechanically tunable photonics for visible wavelengths and cryogenic temperatures},
author = {Stanfield, P. R. and Leenheer, A. J. and Michael, C. P. and Sims, R. and Eichenfield, M.},
abstractNote = {We demonstrate a platform for phase and amplitude modulation in silicon nitride photonic integrated circuits via piezo-optomechanical coupling using tightly mechanically coupled aluminum nitride actuators. The platform, fabricated in a CMOS foundry, enables scalable active photonic integrated circuits for visible wavelengths, and the piezoelectric actuation functions without performance degradation down to cryogenic temperatures. As an example of the potential of the platform, we demonstrate a compact (~40 µm diameter) silicon nitride ring resonator modulator operating at 780 nm with intrinsic quality factors in excess of 1.5 million, >10 dB change in extinction ratio with 2 V applied, a switching time less than 4 ns, and a switching energy of 0.5 pJ/bit. We characterize the exemplary device at room temperature and 7 K. At 7 K, the device obtains a resistance of approximately 20 teraohms, allowing it to operate with sub-picowatt electrical power dissipation. We further demonstrate a Mach-Zehnder modulator constructed in the same platform with piezoelectrically tunable phase shifting arms, with 750 ns switching time constant and 20 nW steady-state power dissipation at room temperature.},
doi = {10.1364/OE.27.028588},
journal = {Optics Express},
number = 20,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: 10.1364/OE.27.028588

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