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Title: Effects of blending C3-C4 alcohols on motor gasoline properties and performance of spark ignition engines: A review

Abstract

Supplementing petroleum fuels with sustainable and renewable alternatives is a good option for increasing the sustainability of transportation fuels. Alcohols are particularly attractive blendstocks for spark ignition engines, mainly due to their desirable fuel properties including high octane, evaporative cooling, and reduced sooting propensity. Although the use of SI engines is widespread around the world, predominately for light duty vehicles, concerns about CO2 emissions and other sustainability issues necessitate increased engine efficiencies, reduced tailpipe pollutants, and lower lifecycle carbon emissions. The intelligent blending of C2-C4 alcohols into motor gasoline is a viable method for achieving these goals. There are a multitude of ways to produce renewable alcohols such as through fermentation from first-generation feedstocks (sugar and corn) and second-generation feedstocks (lignocellulosic biomass), or by gasification and mixed alcohol fuel synthesis routes from lignocellulosic biomass. Currently ethanol is extensively used in motor gasoline fuels worldwide and although many have proposed the use of C3 and C4 alcohols in motor gasoline as an improvement over ethanol, the higher cost of production and lack of clear definition as to their benefit over ethanol when blended into motor gasoline have led to slow acceptance into the market. In this review, special emphasis is placedmore » on the effects of blending C3 and C4 alcohols into motor gasoline in terms of physicochemical properties, volatility behavior, and engine performance when compared to ethanol blends. Furthermore, the impact of blending C3 and C4 alcohols with gasoline on emission (particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and unregulated oxygenates) and combustion (volumetric efficiency, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, and cold performance) characteristics is discussed. Although there are some disagreements in the literature over the effect of alcohols predominately around the type of SI engine, i.e., port fuel injected versus direct fuel injected and engine operating mode, generally it is stated that alcohols can potentially reduce soot, unburned hydrocarbons and CO emissions while increasing thermal efficiency when proper engine configuration/calibration is used. Lastly, research that must be conducted to find the optimum combination of alcohol blends and engine configurations is highlighted and discussed.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering
  2. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  3. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; ; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  4. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1562442
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5100-74570
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-3820
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fuel Processing Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 197; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-3820
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; alcohol; higher alcohols; gasoline; blend; combustion; biofuel

Citation Formats

Shirazi, Saeid Aghahossein, Abdollahipoor, Bahareh, Windom, Bret, Reardon, Kenneth F., and Foust, Thomas D. Effects of blending C3-C4 alcohols on motor gasoline properties and performance of spark ignition engines: A review. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106194.
Shirazi, Saeid Aghahossein, Abdollahipoor, Bahareh, Windom, Bret, Reardon, Kenneth F., & Foust, Thomas D. Effects of blending C3-C4 alcohols on motor gasoline properties and performance of spark ignition engines: A review. United States. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106194.
Shirazi, Saeid Aghahossein, Abdollahipoor, Bahareh, Windom, Bret, Reardon, Kenneth F., and Foust, Thomas D. Wed . "Effects of blending C3-C4 alcohols on motor gasoline properties and performance of spark ignition engines: A review". United States. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106194.
@article{osti_1562442,
title = {Effects of blending C3-C4 alcohols on motor gasoline properties and performance of spark ignition engines: A review},
author = {Shirazi, Saeid Aghahossein and Abdollahipoor, Bahareh and Windom, Bret and Reardon, Kenneth F. and Foust, Thomas D.},
abstractNote = {Supplementing petroleum fuels with sustainable and renewable alternatives is a good option for increasing the sustainability of transportation fuels. Alcohols are particularly attractive blendstocks for spark ignition engines, mainly due to their desirable fuel properties including high octane, evaporative cooling, and reduced sooting propensity. Although the use of SI engines is widespread around the world, predominately for light duty vehicles, concerns about CO2 emissions and other sustainability issues necessitate increased engine efficiencies, reduced tailpipe pollutants, and lower lifecycle carbon emissions. The intelligent blending of C2-C4 alcohols into motor gasoline is a viable method for achieving these goals. There are a multitude of ways to produce renewable alcohols such as through fermentation from first-generation feedstocks (sugar and corn) and second-generation feedstocks (lignocellulosic biomass), or by gasification and mixed alcohol fuel synthesis routes from lignocellulosic biomass. Currently ethanol is extensively used in motor gasoline fuels worldwide and although many have proposed the use of C3 and C4 alcohols in motor gasoline as an improvement over ethanol, the higher cost of production and lack of clear definition as to their benefit over ethanol when blended into motor gasoline have led to slow acceptance into the market. In this review, special emphasis is placed on the effects of blending C3 and C4 alcohols into motor gasoline in terms of physicochemical properties, volatility behavior, and engine performance when compared to ethanol blends. Furthermore, the impact of blending C3 and C4 alcohols with gasoline on emission (particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and unregulated oxygenates) and combustion (volumetric efficiency, thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, and cold performance) characteristics is discussed. Although there are some disagreements in the literature over the effect of alcohols predominately around the type of SI engine, i.e., port fuel injected versus direct fuel injected and engine operating mode, generally it is stated that alcohols can potentially reduce soot, unburned hydrocarbons and CO emissions while increasing thermal efficiency when proper engine configuration/calibration is used. Lastly, research that must be conducted to find the optimum combination of alcohol blends and engine configurations is highlighted and discussed.},
doi = {10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106194},
journal = {Fuel Processing Technology},
number = C,
volume = 197,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

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