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Title: Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube

Abstract

After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multi-wavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible ($$\leq 2\sigma$$) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multi-wavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT collaboration; ASAS-SN collaboration; IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1561941
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 880; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., Holoien, T. W. -S., Kochanek, C. S., Prieto, J. L., Stanek, K. Z., Thompson, T. A., Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Alispach, C., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. -H., Tjus, J. Becker, BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., de André, J. P. A. M., Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Diaz, A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Günder, M., Gündüz, M., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Henningsen, F., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karl, M., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Krückl, G., Kulacz, N., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lazar, J. P., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Mariscal, C. J. Lozano, Lu, L., Lucarelli, F., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mallot, K., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Medina, A., Meier, M., Meighen-Berger, S., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Park, N., Peiffer, P., de los Heros, C. Pérez, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Raissi, A., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Silva, M., Snihur, R., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Tomankova, L., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Elorrieta, M. A. Unland, Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijk, D. van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Weldert, J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Yuan, T. Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., Holoien, T. W. -S., Kochanek, C. S., Prieto, J. L., Stanek, K. Z., Thompson, T. A., Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Alispach, C., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. -H., Tjus, J. Becker, BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., de André, J. P. A. M., Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Diaz, A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Günder, M., Gündüz, M., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Henningsen, F., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karl, M., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Krückl, G., Kulacz, N., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lazar, J. P., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Mariscal, C. J. Lozano, Lu, L., Lucarelli, F., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mallot, K., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Medina, A., Meier, M., Meighen-Berger, S., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Park, N., Peiffer, P., de los Heros, C. Pérez, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Raissi, A., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Silva, M., Snihur, R., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Tomankova, L., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Elorrieta, M. A. Unland, Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijk, D. van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Weldert, J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., & Yuan, T. Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., Holoien, T. W. -S., Kochanek, C. S., Prieto, J. L., Stanek, K. Z., Thompson, T. A., Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Alispach, C., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. -H., Tjus, J. Becker, BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., de André, J. P. A. M., Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Diaz, A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Günder, M., Gündüz, M., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Henningsen, F., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karl, M., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Krückl, G., Kulacz, N., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lazar, J. P., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Mariscal, C. J. Lozano, Lu, L., Lucarelli, F., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mallot, K., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Medina, A., Meier, M., Meighen-Berger, S., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Park, N., Peiffer, P., de los Heros, C. Pérez, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Raissi, A., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Silva, M., Snihur, R., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Tomankova, L., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Elorrieta, M. A. Unland, Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijk, D. van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Weldert, J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Yuan, T. Wed . "Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
@article{osti_1561941,
title = {Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube},
author = {Garrappa, S. and Buson, S. and Franckowiak, A. and Shappee, B. J. and Beacom, J. F. and Dong, S. and Holoien, T. W. -S. and Kochanek, C. S. and Prieto, J. L. and Stanek, K. Z. and Thompson, T. A. and Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Argüelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. -H. and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bretz, H. -P. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. S. and Carver, T. and Chen, C. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Coppin, P. and Correa, P. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Dave, P. and de André, J. P. A. M. and Clercq, C. De and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Deoskar, K. and Ridder, S. De and Desiati, P. and Vries, K. D. de and Wasseige, G. de and With, M. de and DeYoung, T. and Diaz, A. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and Dujmovic, H. and Dunkman, M. and Dvorak, E. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fritz, A. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Ganster, E. and Garrappa, S. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Glauch, T. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Günder, M. and Gündüz, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Hünnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Krückl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, M. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Lünemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Mariş, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Micallef, J. and Momenté, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Moulai, M. and Nagai, R. and Nahnhauer, R. and Nakarmi, P. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Olivas, A. and O’Murchadha, A. and O’Sullivan, E. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Park, N. and Peiffer, P. and de los Heros, C. Pérez and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Pizzuto, A. and Plum, M. and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Raab, C. and Raissi, A. and Rameez, M. and Rauch, L. and Rawlins, K. and Rea, I. C. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Renzi, G. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, D. and Rysewyk, D. and Safa, I. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Santander, M. and Sarkar, S. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schaufel, M. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schneider, A. and Schneider, J. and Schumacher, L. and Sclafani, S. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Silva, M. and Snihur, R. and Soedingrekso, J. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stachurska, J. and Stamatikos, M. and Stanev, T. and Stasik, A. and Stein, R. and Stettner, J. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stößl, A. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Stuttard, T. and Sullivan, G. W. and Sutherland, M. and Taboada, I. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tilav, S. and Tomankova, L. and Tönnis, C. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Tselengidou, M. and Tung, C. F. and Turcati, A. and Turcotte, R. and Turley, C. F. and Ty, B. and Unger, E. and Elorrieta, M. A. Unland and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Driessche, W. Van and Eijk, D. van and Eijndhoven, N. van and Vanheule, S. and Santen, J. van and Vraeghe, M. and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Watson, T. B. and Weaver, C. and Weiss, M. J. and Weldert, J. and Wendt, C. and Werthebach, J. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T.},
abstractNote = {After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multi-wavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible ($\leq 2\sigma$) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multi-wavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 880,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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