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Title: Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube

Abstract

After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multi-wavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible ($$\leq 2\sigma$$) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multi-wavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT collaboration; ASAS-SN collaboration; IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1561941
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 880; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., Holoien, T. W. -S., Kochanek, C. S., Prieto, J. L., Stanek, K. Z., Thompson, T. A., Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Alispach, C., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. -H., Tjus, J. Becker, BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., de André, J. P. A. M., Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Diaz, A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Günder, M., Gündüz, M., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Henningsen, F., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karl, M., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Krückl, G., Kulacz, N., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lazar, J. P., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Mariscal, C. J. Lozano, Lu, L., Lucarelli, F., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mallot, K., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Medina, A., Meier, M., Meighen-Berger, S., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Park, N., Peiffer, P., de los Heros, C. Pérez, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Raissi, A., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Silva, M., Snihur, R., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Tomankova, L., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Elorrieta, M. A. Unland, Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijk, D. van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Weldert, J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Yuan, T. Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada.
Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., Holoien, T. W. -S., Kochanek, C. S., Prieto, J. L., Stanek, K. Z., Thompson, T. A., Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Alispach, C., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. -H., Tjus, J. Becker, BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., de André, J. P. A. M., Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Diaz, A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Günder, M., Gündüz, M., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Henningsen, F., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karl, M., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Krückl, G., Kulacz, N., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lazar, J. P., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Mariscal, C. J. Lozano, Lu, L., Lucarelli, F., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mallot, K., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Medina, A., Meier, M., Meighen-Berger, S., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Park, N., Peiffer, P., de los Heros, C. Pérez, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Raissi, A., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Silva, M., Snihur, R., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Tomankova, L., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Elorrieta, M. A. Unland, Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijk, D. van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Weldert, J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., & Yuan, T. Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada
Garrappa, S., Buson, S., Franckowiak, A., Shappee, B. J., Beacom, J. F., Dong, S., Holoien, T. W. -S., Kochanek, C. S., Prieto, J. L., Stanek, K. Z., Thompson, T. A., Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Alispach, C., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Backes, P., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barbano, A., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. -H., Tjus, J. Becker, BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, E., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Brostean-Kaiser, J., Burgman, A., Busse, R. S., Carver, T., Chen, C., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Clark, K., Classen, L., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Coppin, P., Correa, P., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Dave, P., de André, J. P. A. M., Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Deoskar, K., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Diaz, A., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Dujmovic, H., Dunkman, M., Dvorak, E., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fritz, A., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Ganster, E., Garrappa, S., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Günder, M., Gündüz, M., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halve, L., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Henningsen, F., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hoinka, T., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., Hünnefeld, M., Hussain, R., In, S., Iovine, N., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Kappesser, D., Karg, T., Karl, M., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Krückl, G., Kulacz, N., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lazar, J. P., Leonard, K., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lohfink, E., Mariscal, C. J. Lozano, Lu, L., Lucarelli, F., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Makino, Y., Mallot, K., Mancina, S., Mariş, I. C., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Medina, A., Meier, M., Meighen-Berger, S., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nagai, R., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., O’Sullivan, E., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Park, N., Peiffer, P., de los Heros, C. Pérez, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pizzuto, A., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Raissi, A., Rameez, M., Rauch, L., Rawlins, K., Rea, I. C., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Renzi, G., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Safa, I., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Santander, M., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schaufel, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schneider, J., Schumacher, L., Sclafani, S., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Silva, M., Snihur, R., Soedingrekso, J., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stamatikos, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stein, R., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Stuttard, T., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tilav, S., Tomankova, L., Tönnis, C., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turcotte, R., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Elorrieta, M. A. Unland, Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijk, D. van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Watson, T. B., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Weldert, J., Wendt, C., Werthebach, J., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Whitehorn, N., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woschnagg, K., Wrede, G., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Yuan, T. Wed . "Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1561941.
@article{osti_1561941,
title = {Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube},
author = {Garrappa, S. and Buson, S. and Franckowiak, A. and Shappee, B. J. and Beacom, J. F. and Dong, S. and Holoien, T. W. -S. and Kochanek, C. S. and Prieto, J. L. and Stanek, K. Z. and Thompson, T. A. and Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Alispach, C. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Argüelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Backes, P. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barbano, A. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. -H. and Tjus, J. Becker and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, E. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Bretz, H. -P. and Bron, S. and Brostean-Kaiser, J. and Burgman, A. and Busse, R. 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G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Günder, M. and Gündüz, M. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halve, L. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Henningsen, F. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hoinka, T. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and Hünnefeld, M. and Hussain, R. and In, S. and Iovine, N. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Kappesser, D. and Karg, T. and Karl, M. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Krückl, G. and Kulacz, N. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, M. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lazar, J. P. and Leonard, K. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lohfink, E. and Mariscal, C. J. Lozano and Lu, L. and Lucarelli, F. and Lünemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Makino, Y. and Mallot, K. and Mancina, S. and Mariş, I. C. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Medina, A. and Meier, M. and Meighen-Berger, S. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Micallef, J. and Momenté, G. and Montaruli, T. and Moore, R. W. and Moulai, M. and Nagai, R. and Nahnhauer, R. and Nakarmi, P. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. 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R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, J. and Wood, T. R. and Woschnagg, K. and Wrede, G. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Yuan, T.},
abstractNote = {After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multi-wavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible ($\leq 2\sigma$) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multi-wavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab2ada},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 880,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Top (bottom): counts maps (residual maps) >100 MeV of the ROI centered on TXS 0506+056 (left) and GB6 J1040+0617 (right). The 90% neutrino angular uncertainty is shown as green contour in the counts maps, the best fit neutrino position is marked by a green ”x”. Sources modeled inmore » the ROI are marked as black crosses in the residual maps. The residual maps show the entire ROI, while the counts maps show a zoom-in to the central region. The zoomed-in region displayed in the counts maps is indicated as a dashed black line in the residual maps. The maps are smoothed using a Gaussian with standard deviation of 0.1°. Note that the color scales for TXS 0506+056 and GB6 J1040+0617 in the top panel are different.« less

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  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-04973

3FHL: The Third Catalog of Hard Fermi -LAT Sources
text, January 2017


All-sky Search for Time-integrated Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Sources with 7 yr of IceCube Data
text, January 2017

  • Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2018-00004

M87 – a misaligned synchrotron-proton blazar?
journal, April 2004


High energy neutrino astrophysics
journal, January 2005


Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars: Spectral Energy Distribution Modeling and High-Energy Polarization Predictions
journal, January 2013


Observation and Characterization of a Cosmic Muon Neutrino Flux from the Northern Hemisphere Using Six Years of IceCube DATA
text, January 2016

  • Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2016-06460

The Blazar TXS 0506+056 Associated with a High-energy Neutrino: Insights into Extragalactic Jets and Cosmic-Ray Acceleration
text, January 2018


The Third Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope
text, January 2015

  • Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2016-00029

The blazar TXS 0506+056 associated with a high-energy neutrino: insights into extragalactic jets and cosmic ray acceleration
text, January 2018

  • Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo
  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
  • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-00114

Gamma Rays from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in Cygnus A
text, January 2008


First Results from the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey
text, January 2008


The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE): Mission Description and Initial On-orbit Performance
text, January 2010


Blazars in the Fermi Era: The OVRO 40-m Telescope Monitoring Program
text, January 2010


Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations
text, January 2012


The time-dependent one-zone hadronic model - First principles
text, January 2012


Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars
text, January 2013


The Cosmic Evolution of Fermi BL Lacertae Objects
text, January 2013


Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector
text, January 2013


A hadronic origin for ultra-high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects
text, January 2014


The Last of FIRST: The Final Catalog and Source Identifications
text, January 2015


Time Dependent Hadronic Modeling of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars
text, January 2015


Hidden Cosmic-Ray Accelerators as an Origin of TeV-PeV Cosmic Neutrinos
text, January 2015


The contribution of Fermi-2LAC blazars to the diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino flux
text, January 2016


The IceCube Realtime Alert System
text, January 2016


3FHL: The Third Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources
text, January 2017


Fermipy: An open-source Python package for analysis of Fermi-LAT Data
preprint, January 2017


The redshift of the BL Lac object TXS 0506+056
text, January 2018


Opening a New Window onto the Universe with IceCube
text, January 2018


Blazar Flares as an Origin of High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos?
text, January 2018


Eddington bias for cosmic neutrino sources
text, January 2018


Fermi-LAT counterparts of IceCube neutrinos above 100 TeV
text, January 2018


A Proton Synchrotron Blazar Model for Flaring in Markarian~501
text, January 2000


High-Energy Neutrinos from Photomeson Processes in Blazars
text, January 2001


BL Lac Objects in the Synchrotron Proton Blazar Model
text, January 2002


Neutral Beams from Blazar Jets
text, January 2002


Works referencing / citing this record:

Perspectives of blazar studies with future space missions
journal, November 2019


Multimessenger tests of cosmic-ray acceleration in radiatively inefficient accretion flows
journal, October 2019


A Neutral Beam Model for High-energy Neutrino Emission from the Blazar TXS 0506+056
journal, January 2020

  • Zhang, B. Theodore; Petropoulou, Maria; Murase, Kohta
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab659a

Patterns in the Multiwavelength Behavior of Candidate Neutrino Blazars
journal, April 2020


Patterns in the multi-wavelength behavior of candidate neutrino blazars
text, January 2020