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Title: High temperature materials for heavy duty diesel engines: Historical and future trends

Abstract

We report that heavy duty (HD) vehicles are projected to be the largest fuel-use subsector in transportation, with current demand for diesel fuel projected to grow 30% by 2040. Historically, a primary strategy for increasing diesel engine efficiency has been to increase peak cylinder pressure (PCP). However, increasing PCP imparts greater mechanical and thermal loads on engine components and materials. In recent years, the material property limits for many components have been reached and further increases in PCP above ~20 MPa have been difficult, while still maintaining the necessary affordability and longevity of on-road HD diesel engines. This paper reviews the historical evolution and major metallurgical advancements of high temperature materials in HD on road diesel engines (10–15 L displacement) up to the current state of the art, focusing on materials in the engine block, cylinder heads, pistons, valves, and exhaust components. These components cover a wide range of material classes, including cast iron, ferritic steel, austenitic steel, titanium alloys, nickel based super-alloys, and high temperature coatings. Finally, the microstructural degradation and failure mechanisms of the materials associated with the complex mechanical and thermal loading during service are discussed and key areas for future materials research are suggested that overcomemore » technical barriers.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)
  3. Valvoline, Inc., Lexington, KY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1561678
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1560916
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0079-6425
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Diesel engines; Cast iron; Martensitic steel; Austenitic steel; Microalloyed steel; Nickel based superalloys

Citation Formats

Pierce, Dean T., Haynes, James A., Hughes, Jeff, Graves, Ronald L., Maziasz, Philip J., Muralidharan, Govindarajan, Shyam, Amit, Wang, Ben, England, Roger, and Daniel, Claus. High temperature materials for heavy duty diesel engines: Historical and future trends. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2018.10.004.
Pierce, Dean T., Haynes, James A., Hughes, Jeff, Graves, Ronald L., Maziasz, Philip J., Muralidharan, Govindarajan, Shyam, Amit, Wang, Ben, England, Roger, & Daniel, Claus. High temperature materials for heavy duty diesel engines: Historical and future trends. United States. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2018.10.004.
Pierce, Dean T., Haynes, James A., Hughes, Jeff, Graves, Ronald L., Maziasz, Philip J., Muralidharan, Govindarajan, Shyam, Amit, Wang, Ben, England, Roger, and Daniel, Claus. Wed . "High temperature materials for heavy duty diesel engines: Historical and future trends". United States. doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2018.10.004. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1561678.
@article{osti_1561678,
title = {High temperature materials for heavy duty diesel engines: Historical and future trends},
author = {Pierce, Dean T. and Haynes, James A. and Hughes, Jeff and Graves, Ronald L. and Maziasz, Philip J. and Muralidharan, Govindarajan and Shyam, Amit and Wang, Ben and England, Roger and Daniel, Claus},
abstractNote = {We report that heavy duty (HD) vehicles are projected to be the largest fuel-use subsector in transportation, with current demand for diesel fuel projected to grow 30% by 2040. Historically, a primary strategy for increasing diesel engine efficiency has been to increase peak cylinder pressure (PCP). However, increasing PCP imparts greater mechanical and thermal loads on engine components and materials. In recent years, the material property limits for many components have been reached and further increases in PCP above ~20 MPa have been difficult, while still maintaining the necessary affordability and longevity of on-road HD diesel engines. This paper reviews the historical evolution and major metallurgical advancements of high temperature materials in HD on road diesel engines (10–15 L displacement) up to the current state of the art, focusing on materials in the engine block, cylinder heads, pistons, valves, and exhaust components. These components cover a wide range of material classes, including cast iron, ferritic steel, austenitic steel, titanium alloys, nickel based super-alloys, and high temperature coatings. Finally, the microstructural degradation and failure mechanisms of the materials associated with the complex mechanical and thermal loading during service are discussed and key areas for future materials research are suggested that overcome technical barriers.},
doi = {10.1016/j.pmatsci.2018.10.004},
journal = {Progress in Materials Science},
number = C,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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