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Title: Advancing next generation nanolithography with infiltration synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite resists

Abstract

Organic–inorganic hybrid resists are emerging as an effective way of addressing stringent process requirements for aggressive down-scaling of semiconducting devices. Yet, hybrid resists generally require complex chemical synthesis while being predominantly negative-tone with high dose requirements. For positive-tone processes and high-aspect-ratio pattern transfers, resist choices are limited to costly, non-hybrid alternatives, whose etch resistance is still inferior compared with hybrid resists. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hybrid positive-tone resist platform utilizing simple ex situ vapor-phase inorganic infiltration into standard resist materials. A model system based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film hybridized with aluminum oxide has been demonstrated for electron-beam lithography patterning, featuring a fully controllable critical exposure dose, contrast, and etch resistance. The hybrid resist not only achieves contrast as high as ~30, six-fold enhancement over standard PMMA, but also enables Si nanostructures with resolution down to ~30 nm and an aspect ratio as high as ~17, owing to enhancement of the Si etch selectivity to ~70, with an estimated achievable maximum of ~300, far exceeding known commercial positive-tone resist systems. The easy implementabilility, combined with versatile ex situ control of resist characteristics, makes this hybrid resist synthesis method uniquely suited for addressing the resist performance andmore » high throughput required for advanced nanolithography techniques, such as extreme ultraviolet lithography, possibly.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  3. Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1561253
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1542528
Report Number(s):
BNL-212064-2019-JAAM; BNL-213624-2020-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7526; JMCCCX
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 29; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7526
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Tiwale, Nikhil, Subramanian, Ashwanth, Kisslinger, Kim, Lu, Ming, Kim, Jiyoung, Stein, Aaron, and Nam, Chang-Yong. Advancing next generation nanolithography with infiltration synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite resists. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1039/C9TC02974E.
Tiwale, Nikhil, Subramanian, Ashwanth, Kisslinger, Kim, Lu, Ming, Kim, Jiyoung, Stein, Aaron, & Nam, Chang-Yong. Advancing next generation nanolithography with infiltration synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite resists. United States. doi:10.1039/C9TC02974E.
Tiwale, Nikhil, Subramanian, Ashwanth, Kisslinger, Kim, Lu, Ming, Kim, Jiyoung, Stein, Aaron, and Nam, Chang-Yong. Mon . "Advancing next generation nanolithography with infiltration synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite resists". United States. doi:10.1039/C9TC02974E. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1561253.
@article{osti_1561253,
title = {Advancing next generation nanolithography with infiltration synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite resists},
author = {Tiwale, Nikhil and Subramanian, Ashwanth and Kisslinger, Kim and Lu, Ming and Kim, Jiyoung and Stein, Aaron and Nam, Chang-Yong},
abstractNote = {Organic–inorganic hybrid resists are emerging as an effective way of addressing stringent process requirements for aggressive down-scaling of semiconducting devices. Yet, hybrid resists generally require complex chemical synthesis while being predominantly negative-tone with high dose requirements. For positive-tone processes and high-aspect-ratio pattern transfers, resist choices are limited to costly, non-hybrid alternatives, whose etch resistance is still inferior compared with hybrid resists. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hybrid positive-tone resist platform utilizing simple ex situ vapor-phase inorganic infiltration into standard resist materials. A model system based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film hybridized with aluminum oxide has been demonstrated for electron-beam lithography patterning, featuring a fully controllable critical exposure dose, contrast, and etch resistance. The hybrid resist not only achieves contrast as high as ~30, six-fold enhancement over standard PMMA, but also enables Si nanostructures with resolution down to ~30 nm and an aspect ratio as high as ~17, owing to enhancement of the Si etch selectivity to ~70, with an estimated achievable maximum of ~300, far exceeding known commercial positive-tone resist systems. The easy implementabilility, combined with versatile ex situ control of resist characteristics, makes this hybrid resist synthesis method uniquely suited for addressing the resist performance and high throughput required for advanced nanolithography techniques, such as extreme ultraviolet lithography, possibly.},
doi = {10.1039/C9TC02974E},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry C},
number = 29,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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    • Pavelchek, Edward K.
    • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 8, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1116/1.585104

    Application of Plasmask R  resist and the DESIRE process to lithography at 248 nm
    journal, November 1990

    • Hutton, Richard S.
    • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 8, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1116/1.585105

    Combination photo and electron beam lithography with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resist
    journal, October 2017

    • Carbaugh, Daniel J.; Pandya, Sneha G.; Wright, Jason T.
    • Nanotechnology, Vol. 28, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa8bd5

    Spin-coatable HfO2 resist for optical and electron beam lithographies
    journal, January 2010

    • Saifullah, M. S. M.; Khan, M. Z. R.; Hasko, David G.
    • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, Vol. 28, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1116/1.3273536

    Extreme ultraviolet resist materials for sub-7 nm patterning
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    • Li, Li; Liu, Xuan; Pal, Shyam
    • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 46, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7cs00080d

    High aspect ratio silicon etch: A review
    journal, September 2010

    • Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay; Pamarthy, Sharma
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 108, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3474652

    Antimony photoresists for EUV lithography: mechanistic studies
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    • Murphy, Michael; Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven
    • SPIE Advanced Lithography, SPIE Proceedings
    • DOI: 10.1117/12.2258119

    Chemical Modification Mechanisms in Hybrid Hafnium Oxo-methacrylate Nanocluster Photoresists for Extreme Ultraviolet Patterning
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    Improved etch resistance of ZEP 520A in reactive ion etching through heat and ultraviolet light treatment
    journal, January 2009

    • Czaplewski, David A.; Tallant, David R.; Patrizi, Gary A.
    • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Vol. 27, Issue 2
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    Chemical Semi-Amplified positive E-beam Resist (CSAR 62) for highest resolution
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    • Schirmer, M.; Büttner, B.; Syrowatka, F.
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    • DOI: 10.1117/12.2030576

    Platinum and palladium oxalates: positive-tone extreme ultraviolet resists
    journal, October 2015

    • Sortland, Miriam; Hotalen, Jodi; Re, Ryan Del
    • Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS, Vol. 14, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1117/1.jmm.14.4.043511

    Negative resist image by dry etching: a novel surface imaging resist scheme
    journal, June 2003


    Metal-carbonyl organometallic polymers, PFpP, as resists for high-resolution positive and negative electron beam lithography
    journal, January 2015

    • Zhang, J.; Cao, K.; Wang, X. S.
    • Chemical Communications, Vol. 51, Issue 99
    • DOI: 10.1039/c5cc07117h

    Direct writing of ZrO 2 on a sub-10 nm scale using an electron beam
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    • Peters, Richard D.; Amblard, Gilles R.; Lee, Jen-Jiang
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    • Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1149/1.2335939

    New Insight into the Mechanism of Sequential Infiltration Synthesis from Infrared Spectroscopy
    journal, October 2014

    • Biswas, Mahua; Libera, Joseph A.; Darling, Seth B.
    • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1021/cm502427q

    Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups
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    • Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 8, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07334k

    Optimized surface silylation of chemically amplified epoxidized photoresists for micromachining applications
    journal, April 2010

    • Kontziampasis, D.; Beltsios, K.; Tegou, E.
    • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 117, Issue 4, p. 2189-2195
    • DOI: 10.1002/app.31644

    Effect of Nanostructured Domains in Self-Assembled Block Copolymer Films on Sequential Infiltration Synthesis
    journal, November 2017


    Surface imaging techniques
    journal, March 1991


    Enhanced polymeric lithography resists via sequential infiltration synthesis
    journal, July 2011

    • Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing; Ocola, Leonidas E.
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 21, Issue 32, 11722-11725
    • DOI: 10.1039/c1jm12461g

    Organosilicate polymer e-beam resists with high resolution, sensitivity and stability: Organosilicate polymer e-beam resists
    journal, October 2013

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