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Title: Hawking radiation as instantons

Abstract

There have been various interpretations of Hawking radiation proposed based on the perturbative approach, and all have confirmed Hawking’s original finding. One major conceptual challenge of Hawking evaporation is the associated black hole information loss paradox, which remains unresolved. A key factor to the issue is the end-stage of the black hole evaporation. Unfortunately by then the evaporation process becomes non-perturbative. Aspired to provide a tool for the eventual solution to this problem, here we introduce a new interpretation of Hawking radiation as the tunneling of instantons. We study instantons of a massless scalar field in Einstein gravity. We consider a complex-valued instanton that connects an initial pure black hole state to a black hole with a scalar field that represents the Hawking radiation at future null infinity, where its action depends only on the areal entropy difference. By comparing it with several independent approaches to Hawking radiation in the perturbative limit, we conclude that Hawking radiation may indeed be described by a family of instantons. Since the instanton approach can describe non-perturbative processes, we hope that our new interpretation and holistic method may shed lights on the information loss problem.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  2. National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
  3. Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1560792
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 79; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Chen, Pisin, Sasaki, Misao, and Yeom, Dong-han. Hawking radiation as instantons. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7138-0.
Chen, Pisin, Sasaki, Misao, & Yeom, Dong-han. Hawking radiation as instantons. United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7138-0.
Chen, Pisin, Sasaki, Misao, and Yeom, Dong-han. Fri . "Hawking radiation as instantons". United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7138-0. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1560792.
@article{osti_1560792,
title = {Hawking radiation as instantons},
author = {Chen, Pisin and Sasaki, Misao and Yeom, Dong-han},
abstractNote = {There have been various interpretations of Hawking radiation proposed based on the perturbative approach, and all have confirmed Hawking’s original finding. One major conceptual challenge of Hawking evaporation is the associated black hole information loss paradox, which remains unresolved. A key factor to the issue is the end-stage of the black hole evaporation. Unfortunately by then the evaporation process becomes non-perturbative. Aspired to provide a tool for the eventual solution to this problem, here we introduce a new interpretation of Hawking radiation as the tunneling of instantons. We study instantons of a massless scalar field in Einstein gravity. We consider a complex-valued instanton that connects an initial pure black hole state to a black hole with a scalar field that represents the Hawking radiation at future null infinity, where its action depends only on the areal entropy difference. By comparing it with several independent approaches to Hawking radiation in the perturbative limit, we conclude that Hawking radiation may indeed be described by a family of instantons. Since the instanton approach can describe non-perturbative processes, we hope that our new interpretation and holistic method may shed lights on the information loss problem.},
doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7138-0},
journal = {European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields},
number = 7,
volume = 79,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: We want to know the scattering amplitude from the in-state to the out-state.

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.