# Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe

## Abstract

We consider a modified cosmological history in which the presence of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics causes the weak gauge sector, $$\mathrm{SU}(2)_L$$, to confine before it is Higgsed. Under the assumption of chiral symmetry breaking, quark and lepton weak doublets form condensates that break the global symmetries of the Standard Model, including baryon and lepton number, down to a $$\mathrm{U}(1)$$ subgroup under which only the weak singlet fermions and Higgs transform. The weakly-coupled gauge group $$\mathrm{SU}(3)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Y$$ is also broken to an $$\mathrm{SU}(2)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Q$$ gauge group. The light states include (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons of the global symmetry breaking, mostly-elementary fermions primarily composed of the weak singlet quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons of the weakly-coupled gauge group. We discuss possible signatures from early Universe cosmology including gravitational wave radiation, topological defects, and baryogenesis.

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1560728

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1546013

- Report Number(s):
- arXiv:1906.05157; FERMILAB-PUB-19-269-T; PITT-PACC-1903

Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 055005

- Grant/Contract Number:
- SC0007859; AC02-07CH11359

- Resource Type:
- Published Article

- Journal Name:
- Physical Review D

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Name: Physical Review D Journal Volume: 100 Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010

- Publisher:
- American Physical Society

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

### Citation Formats

```
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., and Turner, Jessica. Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
```

```
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., & Turner, Jessica. Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
```

```
Berger, Joshua, Long, Andrew J., and Turner, Jessica. Fri .
"Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005.
```

```
@article{osti_1560728,
```

title = {Phase of confined electroweak force in the early Universe},

author = {Berger, Joshua and Long, Andrew J. and Turner, Jessica},

abstractNote = {We consider a modified cosmological history in which the presence of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics causes the weak gauge sector, $\mathrm{SU}(2)_L$, to confine before it is Higgsed. Under the assumption of chiral symmetry breaking, quark and lepton weak doublets form condensates that break the global symmetries of the Standard Model, including baryon and lepton number, down to a $\mathrm{U}(1)$ subgroup under which only the weak singlet fermions and Higgs transform. The weakly-coupled gauge group $\mathrm{SU}(3)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Y$ is also broken to an $\mathrm{SU}(2)_c \times \mathrm{U}(1)_Q$ gauge group. The light states include (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons of the global symmetry breaking, mostly-elementary fermions primarily composed of the weak singlet quarks and leptons, and the gauge bosons of the weakly-coupled gauge group. We discuss possible signatures from early Universe cosmology including gravitational wave radiation, topological defects, and baryogenesis.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005},

journal = {Physical Review D},

number = 5,

volume = 100,

place = {United States},

year = {2019},

month = {9}

}

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.100.055005

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#### Figures / Tables:

_{L}weak force is parametrized by the fine structure constant α

_{W}=more »

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Figures / Tables found in this record:

*Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.*