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Title: Late Holocene Structural Style and Seismicity of Highly Transpressional Faults in Southern Haiti

Abstract

The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake ( M w 7.0) was caused by rupture of the Léogâne, blind, thrust fault located 5 km north of the 1,200-km-long, left-lateral, Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ). Unexpectedly, the EPGFZ remained largely quiescent or slightly reactivated during the 2010 earthquake. Nevertheless, the EPGFZ still formed a major, crustal boundary between a coseismically uplifted lowland north of the EPGFZ and a subsided area in the highlands south of the fault. Here we use high-resolution sonar data from two Haitian Lakes that straddle the EPGFZ to demonstrate the presence of a 10- to 15-km-wide, 120-km-long, late Holocene fold-thrust belt which deforms clastic, lowland basins along the northern edge of the EPGFZ. In the eastern part of the study area, sonar results from Lake Azuey show that the linear trace of the EPGFZ cutting the Holocene lake bed is more deeply buried and less active than the adjacent, newly discovered, northwest striking, northeast dipping Jimani thrust fault that is part of the adjacent, transpressional belt of en echelon thrusts and folds. This structural relationship between a less active EPGFZ and more recently active, transpression-related Jimani thrust is remarkably similar to the 2010 epicentral area 70 km to the west between themore » less active EPGFZ and seismogenic, northeast-dipping, Léogâne thrust during the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this complex transpressional zone, we propose that coseismic deformation alternates at recurrence intervals of centuries between oblique, transpression-related structures (Léogâne, Jimani, and Trois Baies thrusts) and the main strike-slip, plate boundary fault zone (EPGFZ).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1560560
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Tectonics
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 10]; Journal ID: ISSN 0278-7407
Publisher:
Wiley/American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; transpression; strike‐slip fault; CHIRP sonar; conjugate thrust fault; 2010 Haiti earthquake; blind thrust fault

Citation Formats

Wang, Jiannan, Mann, Paul, and Stewart, Robert R. Late Holocene Structural Style and Seismicity of Highly Transpressional Faults in Southern Haiti. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1029/2017tc004920.
Wang, Jiannan, Mann, Paul, & Stewart, Robert R. Late Holocene Structural Style and Seismicity of Highly Transpressional Faults in Southern Haiti. United States. doi:10.1029/2017tc004920.
Wang, Jiannan, Mann, Paul, and Stewart, Robert R. Fri . "Late Holocene Structural Style and Seismicity of Highly Transpressional Faults in Southern Haiti". United States. doi:10.1029/2017tc004920. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1560560.
@article{osti_1560560,
title = {Late Holocene Structural Style and Seismicity of Highly Transpressional Faults in Southern Haiti},
author = {Wang, Jiannan and Mann, Paul and Stewart, Robert R.},
abstractNote = {The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0) was caused by rupture of the Léogâne, blind, thrust fault located 5 km north of the 1,200-km-long, left-lateral, Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ). Unexpectedly, the EPGFZ remained largely quiescent or slightly reactivated during the 2010 earthquake. Nevertheless, the EPGFZ still formed a major, crustal boundary between a coseismically uplifted lowland north of the EPGFZ and a subsided area in the highlands south of the fault. Here we use high-resolution sonar data from two Haitian Lakes that straddle the EPGFZ to demonstrate the presence of a 10- to 15-km-wide, 120-km-long, late Holocene fold-thrust belt which deforms clastic, lowland basins along the northern edge of the EPGFZ. In the eastern part of the study area, sonar results from Lake Azuey show that the linear trace of the EPGFZ cutting the Holocene lake bed is more deeply buried and less active than the adjacent, newly discovered, northwest striking, northeast dipping Jimani thrust fault that is part of the adjacent, transpressional belt of en echelon thrusts and folds. This structural relationship between a less active EPGFZ and more recently active, transpression-related Jimani thrust is remarkably similar to the 2010 epicentral area 70 km to the west between the less active EPGFZ and seismogenic, northeast-dipping, Léogâne thrust during the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this complex transpressional zone, we propose that coseismic deformation alternates at recurrence intervals of centuries between oblique, transpression-related structures (Léogâne, Jimani, and Trois Baies thrusts) and the main strike-slip, plate boundary fault zone (EPGFZ).},
doi = {10.1029/2017tc004920},
journal = {Tectonics},
number = [10],
volume = [37],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Kroehler, Margaret E.; Mann, Paul; Escalona, Alejandro</span> </li> <li> Tectonics, Vol. 30, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1029/2011TC002918" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1029/2011TC002918<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1193/1.3630226" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Shear Wave Velocity- and Geology-Based Seismic Microzonation of Port-au-Prince, Haiti<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2011-10-01">October 2011</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Cox, Brady R.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Rathje, Ellen</span> </li> <li> Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 27, Issue S1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1193/1.3630226" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1193/1.3630226<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<1143:SOSNTS>2.0.CO;2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">State of stress near the San Andreas fault: Implications for wrench tectonics<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1987-01-01">January 1987</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Mount, Van S.; Suppe, John</span> </li> <li> Geology, Vol. 15, Issue 12</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<1143:SOSNTS>2.0.CO;2" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<1143:SOSNTS>2.0.CO;2<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1190/segam2015-5918190.1" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Inferring marine sediment type using chirp sonar data: Atlantis field, Gulf of Mexico<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">conference</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2015-08-19">August 2015</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Wang, Jiannan; Stewart, Robert</span> </li> <li> SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2015</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1190/segam2015-5918190.1" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1190/segam2015-5918190.1<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1144/SP367.4" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Reverse fault rupturing: competition between non-optimal and optimal fault orientations<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-01-01">January 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Sibson, R. H.</span> </li> <li> Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Vol. 367, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1144/SP367.4" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1144/SP367.4<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/463878a" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Lessons from the Haiti earthquake<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2010-02-01">February 2010</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Bilham, Roger</span> </li> <li> Nature, Vol. 463, Issue 7283</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/463878a" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1038/463878a<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1785/0120120303" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Crustal Structure and Fault Geometry of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake from Temporary Seismometer Deployments<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2013-07-31">July 2013</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Douilly, R.; Haase, J. S.; Ellsworth, W. L.</span> </li> <li> Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 103, Issue 4</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1785/0120120303" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1785/0120120303<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1785/0120110077" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 1500-2010: Implications for Seismic Hazard<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-02-01">February 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Bakun, W. H.; Flores, C. H.; ten Brink, U. S.</span> </li> <li> Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 102, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1785/0120110077" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1785/0120110077<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1785/0120120306" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 2010 M 7.0 Haiti Earthquake and Resulting Stress Changes on Regional Faults<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2013-07-31">July 2013</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Haase, J. S.</span> </li> <li> Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 103, Issue 4</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1785/0120120306" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1785/0120120306<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.04.034" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Present-day shortening in Southern Haiti from GPS measurements and implications for seismic hazard<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2016-06-01">June 2016</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Symithe, Steeve; Calais, Eric</span> </li> <li> Tectonophysics, Vol. 679</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.04.034" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.tecto.2016.04.034<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div></div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="conference"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> conference<small class="text-muted"> (1)</small></a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1136717-slip-dilation-tendency-analysis-tuscarora-geothermal-area" itemprop="url">Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the Tuscarora Geothermal Area</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Dataset</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Faulds, James E.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005) as well as local stress information if applicable. For faults within these focus systems we applied either a normal faulting stress regime where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin) or strike-slip faulting stress regime where the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) is larger than the vertical stress (sv) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (shmax >sv>shmin) depending on the general tectonic province of the system. Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46, which are consistent with complete and partial stress field determinations from Desert Peak, Coso, the Fallon area and Dixie valley (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2011; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012). Slip and dilation tendency for the Tuscarora geothermal field was calculated based on the faults mapped Tuscarora area (Dering, 2013). The Tuscarora area lies in the Basin and Range Province, as such we applied a normal faulting stress regime to the Tuscarora area faults, with a minimum horizontal stress direction oriented 115, based on inspection of local and regional stress determinations, as explained above. Under these stress conditions north-northeast striking, steeply dipping fault segments have the highest dilation tendency, while north-northeast striking 60° dipping fault segments have the highest tendency to slip. Tuscarora is defined by a left-step in a major north- to-north northeast striking, west-dipping range-bounding normal fault system. Faults within the broad step define an anticlinal accommodation zone...</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.15121/1136717" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1136717" data-product-type="Dataset" data-product-subtype="" >10.15121/1136717</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1136717" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1136717" data-product-type="Dataset" data-product-subtype="" >View Dataset</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/425735-strike-slip-structural-styles-petroleum-system-evolution-northeast-sakhalin-island" itemprop="url">Strike-slip structural styles and petroleum system evolution, northeast Sakhalin Island</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Meisling, K E</span> ; <span class="author">Wagner, J B</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The primary petroleum system of northeast Sakhalin Island and adjacent shelfal areas is comprised of a system of Late Miocene to Quaternary faulted transpressional anticlines that trap oil and gas in Early Miocene to Pliocene deltaic reservoirs sourced from Late Oligocene to Early Miocene diatomaceous shales. Existing production has been limited to onshore anticlines, and offshore structural trends remain undeveloped, despite several discoveries. The regional tectonic evolution of Sakhalin Island can be divided into five major phases: (1) Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene subduction, (2) Middle-Eocene collision and uplift, (3) Late Eocene to Early Oligocene oblique rifting, (4) Late Oligocene<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> to Middle Miocene thermal subsidence, and (5) Late Miocene to Quaternary transpression and inversion. Oil-prone source rocks were deposited during rapid post-rift thermal subsidence of transtensional rift basins and adjacent highs, which provided an ideal sediment-starved setting for source rock accumulation. Reservoir facies were supplied by prograding post-rift Miocene deltaics of the paleo-Amur river, which built a shelf across the thermally subsiding basin and intrabasin highs. Traps were formed when the basin was later inverted during Late Miocene to Pleistocene transpression, which reactivated both Paleogene normal faults and structural trends of the Mesozoic accretionary prism to create a broad zone of distributed shear. Strike-slip structural styles are evidenced by linear, en echelon alignments of doubly-plunging anticlines characterized by numerous small-displacement, transverse normal faults. Strike slip on individual structures is relatively small, however, based on a lack of thorough going faults. Strike-slip structures on Sakhalin Island are considered active, in light of the earthquake of May 27, 1995 (M=7.6) and uplift of Pleistocene marine terraces.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/425646-map-restoration-early-pliocene-horizon-along-hosgri-purisima-lompoc-fault-system-central-california-margin" itemprop="url">Map restoration of an early Pliocene horizon along the Hosgri-Purisima-Lompoc fault system, central California margin</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Sorlien, C C</span> ; <span class="author">Kamerling, M J</span> ; <span class="author">Mayerson, D</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the San Gregorio-Sur-San Simeon-Hosgri fault system, an important element of the Neogene California transform system. The Hosgri fault proper (top 1-2 km) is located in the hanging-wall of a 10 to 20 km wide zone of mostly E-dipping faults, the Hosgri-Purisima-Lompoc fault system. These faults have undergone Miocene extension, and have been reactivated by post-Miocene contraction or transpression. This wider fault system is truncated against or merges with the E-striking faults in northwestern Santa Barbara Channel. From this starting point of zero displacement, right-lateral displacement on a N- S fault can not<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> be more than the sum of N-S shortening east of it, the N-S extension west of it, and the right-lateral slip fed into it by other faults. We are using a 3-D map restoration technique to quantify the displacements along this fault system. Depth-contoured folded surfaces are flattened using the software UNFOLD, and the restored surfaces are fit back together across faults using an interactive graphic program. Displacements are calculated by comparing the restored surface to the present state with respect to a relatively-fixed block. Our mapping of the early Pliocene top Sisquoc horizon indicates that broad, gentle folds characterize the Point Arguello oil field. Folds located between Point Arguello and Point Sal, are characterized by abrupt changes in amplitude, symmetry, and vergence along strike. The folded surface is unfaulted over wide areas, despite dips up to 45{degrees}. These folds are the result of basin inversion along former rift border faults. Folds are amplified where the basin fill is transpressed against NW-striking restraining bends in a regional NNW-striking system of right-reverse-oblique faults.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1136722-slip-dilation-tendency-anlysis-mcginness-hills-geothermal-area" itemprop="url">Slip and Dilation Tendency Anlysis of McGinness Hills Geothermal Area</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Dataset</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Faulds, James E.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Slip and Dilation Tendency in focus areas Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005) as well as local stress information if applicable. For faults within these focus systems we applied either a normal faulting stress regime where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin) or strike-slip faulting stress regime where the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) is larger than the vertical stress (sv) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (shmax >sv>shmin) depending on the general tectonic province of the system. Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46, which are consistent with complete and partial stress field determinations from Desert Peak, Coso, the Fallon area and Dixie valley (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2011; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012). Slip and dilation tendency for the McGinness Hills geothermal field was calculated based on the faults mapped McGinness Hills area (Siler 2012, unpublished). The McGinness Hills area lies in the Basin and Range Province, as such we applied a normal faulting stress regime to the McGinness area faults, with a minimum horizontal stress direction oriented 115, based on inspection of local and regional stress determinations, as explained above. Under these stress conditions north-northeast striking, steeply dipping fault segments have the highest dilation tendency, while north-northeast striking 60° dipping fault segments have the highest tendency to slip. The McGinness Hills geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a north-northeast striking west-dipping fault system wit...</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.15121/1136722" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1136722" data-product-type="Dataset" data-product-subtype="" >10.15121/1136722</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1136722" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1136722" data-product-type="Dataset" data-product-subtype="" >View Dataset</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1136719-slip-dilation-tendency-analysis-salt-wells-geothermal-area" itemprop="url">Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the Salt Wells Geothermal Area</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Dataset</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Faulds, James E.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005) as well as local stress information if applicable. For faults within these focus systems we applied either a normal faulting stress regime where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin) or strike-slip faulting stress regime where the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) is larger than the vertical stress (sv) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (shmax >sv>shmin) depending on the general tectonic province of the system. Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46, which are consistent with complete and partial stress field determinations from Desert Peak, Coso, the Fallon area and Dixie valley (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2011; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012). Slip and dilation tendency for the Salt Wells geothermal field was calculated based on the faults mapped in the Bunejug Mountains quadrangle (Hinz et al., 2011). The Salt Wells area lies in the Basin and Range Province (N. Hinz personal comm.) As such we applied a normal faulting stress regime to the Salt Wells area faults, with a minimum horizontal stress direction oriented 105, based on inspection of local and regional stress determinations. Under these stress conditions north-northeast striking, steeply dipping fault segments have the highest dilation tendency, while north-northeast striking 60° dipping fault segments have the highest tendency to slip. Several such faults intersect in high density in the core of the accommodation zone in the Bunejug Mountains and local to the Salt Wells geothermal .</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.15121/1136719" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1136719" data-product-type="Dataset" data-product-subtype="" >10.15121/1136719</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1136719" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1136719" data-product-type="Dataset" data-product-subtype="" >View Dataset</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.200319.1244.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.200319.1244.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.200319.1244.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript><script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript></body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.200319.1244 --> </html>