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Title: X-Ray Stereo Digital Image Correlation

Abstract

Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a well-established, non-contact diagnostic technique used to measure shape, displacement and strain of a solid specimen subjected to loading or deformation. Yet, measurements using standard DIC can have significant errors or be completely infeasible in challenging experiments, such as explosive, combustion, or fluid-structure interaction applications, where beam-steering due to index of refraction variation biases measurements or where the sample is engulfed in flames or soot. To address these challenges, we propose using X-ray imaging instead of visible light imaging for stereo-DIC, since refraction of X-rays is negligible in many situations, and X-rays can penetrate occluding material. Two techniques of creating an appropriate pattern for X-ray DIC are presented, both based on adding a dense material in a random speckle pattern on top of a less-dense specimen. A standard dot-calibration target is adapted for X-ray imaging, allowing the common bundle-adjustment calibration process in commercial stereo-DIC software to be used. High-quality X-ray images with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios for DIC are obtained for aluminum specimens with thickness up to 22.2 mm, with a speckle pattern thickness of only 80 μm of tantalum. The accuracy and precision of X-ray DIC measurements are verified through simultaneous optical and X-ray stereo-DICmore » measurements during rigid in-plane and out-of-plane translations, where errors in the X-ray DIC displacements were approximately 2–10 μm for applied displacements up to 20 mm. Finally, a vast reduction in measurement error—5–20 times reduction of displacement error and 2–3 times reduction of strain error—is demonstrated, by comparing X-ray and optical DIC when a hot plate induced a heterogeneous index of refraction field in the air between the specimen and the imaging systems. Subsequently, these findings show the feasibility of using X-ray-based stereo-DIC for non-contact measurements in exacting experimental conditions, where optical DIC cannot be used.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1559523
Report Number(s):
SAND-2019-9806J
Journal ID: ISSN 0732-8818; 678668; TRN: US2000360
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Experimental Techniques
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0732-8818
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Digital Image Correlation (DIC); Index of refraction; X-ray

Citation Formats

Jones, E. M. C., Quintana, E. C., Reu, P. L., and Wagner, J. L. X-Ray Stereo Digital Image Correlation. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40799-019-00339-7.
Jones, E. M. C., Quintana, E. C., Reu, P. L., & Wagner, J. L. X-Ray Stereo Digital Image Correlation. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40799-019-00339-7
Jones, E. M. C., Quintana, E. C., Reu, P. L., and Wagner, J. L. Mon . "X-Ray Stereo Digital Image Correlation". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40799-019-00339-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1559523.
@article{osti_1559523,
title = {X-Ray Stereo Digital Image Correlation},
author = {Jones, E. M. C. and Quintana, E. C. and Reu, P. L. and Wagner, J. L.},
abstractNote = {Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a well-established, non-contact diagnostic technique used to measure shape, displacement and strain of a solid specimen subjected to loading or deformation. Yet, measurements using standard DIC can have significant errors or be completely infeasible in challenging experiments, such as explosive, combustion, or fluid-structure interaction applications, where beam-steering due to index of refraction variation biases measurements or where the sample is engulfed in flames or soot. To address these challenges, we propose using X-ray imaging instead of visible light imaging for stereo-DIC, since refraction of X-rays is negligible in many situations, and X-rays can penetrate occluding material. Two techniques of creating an appropriate pattern for X-ray DIC are presented, both based on adding a dense material in a random speckle pattern on top of a less-dense specimen. A standard dot-calibration target is adapted for X-ray imaging, allowing the common bundle-adjustment calibration process in commercial stereo-DIC software to be used. High-quality X-ray images with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios for DIC are obtained for aluminum specimens with thickness up to 22.2 mm, with a speckle pattern thickness of only 80 μm of tantalum. The accuracy and precision of X-ray DIC measurements are verified through simultaneous optical and X-ray stereo-DIC measurements during rigid in-plane and out-of-plane translations, where errors in the X-ray DIC displacements were approximately 2–10 μm for applied displacements up to 20 mm. Finally, a vast reduction in measurement error—5–20 times reduction of displacement error and 2–3 times reduction of strain error—is demonstrated, by comparing X-ray and optical DIC when a hot plate induced a heterogeneous index of refraction field in the air between the specimen and the imaging systems. Subsequently, these findings show the feasibility of using X-ray-based stereo-DIC for non-contact measurements in exacting experimental conditions, where optical DIC cannot be used.},
doi = {10.1007/s40799-019-00339-7},
journal = {Experimental Techniques},
number = 2,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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