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Title: Visualization of Kirkendall Voids at Cu-Au Interfaces by In Situ TEM Heating Studies

Abstract

Gold-plated copper alloys are used extensively in electrical contacts where diffusional processes are known to cause contact degradation. An in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) heating study was carried out to provide fundamental understanding of the aging phenomena in reasonable timescales. Samples to visualize the interface in TEM were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and heated in situ up to 350°C while holding at intermediate temperatures to enable imaging. The grain boundaries in Au coatings, specifically the columnar boundaries, provided rapid pathways for diffusion of Cu all the way to the Au surface. This unequal diffusion created vacancies in Cu which coalesced into Kirkendall voids. This in situ technique has been applied to visualize the diffusion pathways in electroplated and sputtered Au films deposited directly on Cu, as well the role of Ni and NiP as barrier layers for mitigating Cu diffusion.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1559505
Report Number(s):
SAND2019-8951J
Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838; 678064
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society; Journal ID: ISSN 1047-4838
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Kotula, Paul G., and Prasad, Somuri V. Visualization of Kirkendall Voids at Cu-Au Interfaces by In Situ TEM Heating Studies. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/s11837-019-03708-0.
Kotula, Paul G., & Prasad, Somuri V. Visualization of Kirkendall Voids at Cu-Au Interfaces by In Situ TEM Heating Studies. United States. doi:10.1007/s11837-019-03708-0.
Kotula, Paul G., and Prasad, Somuri V. Wed . "Visualization of Kirkendall Voids at Cu-Au Interfaces by In Situ TEM Heating Studies". United States. doi:10.1007/s11837-019-03708-0.
@article{osti_1559505,
title = {Visualization of Kirkendall Voids at Cu-Au Interfaces by In Situ TEM Heating Studies},
author = {Kotula, Paul G. and Prasad, Somuri V.},
abstractNote = {Gold-plated copper alloys are used extensively in electrical contacts where diffusional processes are known to cause contact degradation. An in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) heating study was carried out to provide fundamental understanding of the aging phenomena in reasonable timescales. Samples to visualize the interface in TEM were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and heated in situ up to 350°C while holding at intermediate temperatures to enable imaging. The grain boundaries in Au coatings, specifically the columnar boundaries, provided rapid pathways for diffusion of Cu all the way to the Au surface. This unequal diffusion created vacancies in Cu which coalesced into Kirkendall voids. This in situ technique has been applied to visualize the diffusion pathways in electroplated and sputtered Au films deposited directly on Cu, as well the role of Ni and NiP as barrier layers for mitigating Cu diffusion.},
doi = {10.1007/s11837-019-03708-0},
journal = {JOM. Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

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