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Title: Three-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the Solfatara Crater (Italy): Implication for the Multiphase Flow Structure of the Shallow Hydrothermal System: Resistivity Model of Solfatara Crater

Abstract

The Solfatara volcano is the main degassing area of the Campi Flegrei caldera, characterized by 30 of unrest. Assessing and understanding such renewal activity is a challenging task because hydrothermal interactions with magmatic gases remain poorly understood. In this study, we decipher the complex structure of the shallow Solfatara hydrothermal system by performing the first 3-D, high-resolution, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) of the volcano. The 3-D resistivity model was obtained from the inversion of 43,432 resistance measurements performed on an area of 0.68 km 2. The proposed interpretation of the multiphase hydrothermal structures is based on the resistivity model, a high-resolution infrared surface temperature image, and 1,136 soil CO 2 flux measurements. In addition, we realized 27 soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and pH measurements demonstrating a negligible contribution of surface conductivity to the shallow bulk electrical conductivity. Hence, we demonstrate that the resistivity changes are mainly controlled by fluid content and temperature. The high-resolution tomograms identify for the first time the structure of the gas-dominated reservoir at 50 m depth that feeds the Bocca Grande fumarole through a ~10-m-thick channel. In addition, the resistivity model reveals a channel-like conductive structure where the liquid produced by steam condensation around themore » main fumaroles flows down to the Fangaia area within a buried fault. The model delineates the emplacement of the main geological structures: Mt Olibano, Solfatara crypto-dome, and tephra deposits. It also reveals the anatomy of the hydrothermal system, especially two liquid-dominated plumes, the Fangaia mud pool and the Pisciarelli fumarole, respectively.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [7]
  1. Univ. Savoie, Chambry (France)
  2. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  4. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Naples (Italy). Osservatorio Vesuviano
  5. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Vesuviano, Naples, Italy
  6. Géosciences Azur, Nice (France)
  7. Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1559115
Report Number(s):
[PNNL-SA-128585]
[Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC05-76RL01830]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 11]; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; electrical resistivity tomography; hydrothermal system; Solfatara volcano; Campi Flegrei caldera

Citation Formats

Gresse, Marceau, Vandemeulebrouck, J., Byrdina, S, Chiodini, C,, Revil, Andre, Johnson, Timothy C., Ricci, Tullio, Vilardo, Giuseppe, Mangiacapra, Annarita, Lebourg, Thomas, Grangeon, Jacques, Bascou, Pascale, and Metral, Laurent. Three-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the Solfatara Crater (Italy): Implication for the Multiphase Flow Structure of the Shallow Hydrothermal System: Resistivity Model of Solfatara Crater. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JB014389.
Gresse, Marceau, Vandemeulebrouck, J., Byrdina, S, Chiodini, C,, Revil, Andre, Johnson, Timothy C., Ricci, Tullio, Vilardo, Giuseppe, Mangiacapra, Annarita, Lebourg, Thomas, Grangeon, Jacques, Bascou, Pascale, & Metral, Laurent. Three-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the Solfatara Crater (Italy): Implication for the Multiphase Flow Structure of the Shallow Hydrothermal System: Resistivity Model of Solfatara Crater. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JB014389.
Gresse, Marceau, Vandemeulebrouck, J., Byrdina, S, Chiodini, C,, Revil, Andre, Johnson, Timothy C., Ricci, Tullio, Vilardo, Giuseppe, Mangiacapra, Annarita, Lebourg, Thomas, Grangeon, Jacques, Bascou, Pascale, and Metral, Laurent. Tue . "Three-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the Solfatara Crater (Italy): Implication for the Multiphase Flow Structure of the Shallow Hydrothermal System: Resistivity Model of Solfatara Crater". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JB014389. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1559115.
@article{osti_1559115,
title = {Three-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography of the Solfatara Crater (Italy): Implication for the Multiphase Flow Structure of the Shallow Hydrothermal System: Resistivity Model of Solfatara Crater},
author = {Gresse, Marceau and Vandemeulebrouck, J. and Byrdina, S and Chiodini, C, and Revil, Andre and Johnson, Timothy C. and Ricci, Tullio and Vilardo, Giuseppe and Mangiacapra, Annarita and Lebourg, Thomas and Grangeon, Jacques and Bascou, Pascale and Metral, Laurent},
abstractNote = {The Solfatara volcano is the main degassing area of the Campi Flegrei caldera, characterized by 30 of unrest. Assessing and understanding such renewal activity is a challenging task because hydrothermal interactions with magmatic gases remain poorly understood. In this study, we decipher the complex structure of the shallow Solfatara hydrothermal system by performing the first 3-D, high-resolution, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) of the volcano. The 3-D resistivity model was obtained from the inversion of 43,432 resistance measurements performed on an area of 0.68 km2. The proposed interpretation of the multiphase hydrothermal structures is based on the resistivity model, a high-resolution infrared surface temperature image, and 1,136 soil CO2 flux measurements. In addition, we realized 27 soil Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and pH measurements demonstrating a negligible contribution of surface conductivity to the shallow bulk electrical conductivity. Hence, we demonstrate that the resistivity changes are mainly controlled by fluid content and temperature. The high-resolution tomograms identify for the first time the structure of the gas-dominated reservoir at 50 m depth that feeds the Bocca Grande fumarole through a ~10-m-thick channel. In addition, the resistivity model reveals a channel-like conductive structure where the liquid produced by steam condensation around the main fumaroles flows down to the Fangaia area within a buried fault. The model delineates the emplacement of the main geological structures: Mt Olibano, Solfatara crypto-dome, and tephra deposits. It also reveals the anatomy of the hydrothermal system, especially two liquid-dominated plumes, the Fangaia mud pool and the Pisciarelli fumarole, respectively.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JB014389},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = [11],
volume = [122],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography for a 3D picture of the most active sector of Campi Flegrei caldera
    journal, October 2019