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Title: A comparison of explosion energies for simulated and observed core-collapse supernovae

Abstract

ABSTRACT There are now 20 multidimensional core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations that explode. However, these simulations have explosion energies that are a few times 1050 erg, not 1051 erg. In this manuscript, we compare the inferred explosion energies of these simulations and observations of 40 SN IIP. Assuming a lognormal distribution, the mean explosion energy for these observations is $$\mu _{\rm obs} = -0.23^{+0.08}_{-0.12}$$ ($$\log _{10}(E/10^{51}\, {\rm erg})$$) and the width is $$\sigma _{\rm obs} = 0.52^{+0.09}_{-0.08}$$. Only three CCSN codes have sufficient simulations to compare with observations: CHIMERA, CoCoNuT-FMT, and FORNAX. Currently, FORNAX has the largest sample of simulations. The two-dimensional FORNAX simulations show a correlation between explosion energy and progenitor mass, ranging from linear to quadratic, Esim ∝ M1 − 2; this correlation is consistent with inferences from observations. In addition, we infer the ratio of the observed-to-simulated explosion energies, Δ = log10(Eobs/Esim). For the CHIMERA set, Δ = 0.25 ± 0.07; for CoCoNuT-FMT, Δ = 0.49 ± 0.07; for FORNAX2D, Δ = 0.62 ± 0.06, and for FORNAX3D, Δ = 0.85 ± 0.07. On average, the simulations are less energetic than inferred energies from observations (Δ ≈ 0.6), but we also note that the variation among the simulations [max(Δ) − min(Δ) ≈ 0.6] is as large as this average offset. This suggests that further improvements to the simulations could resolve the discrepancy. Furthermore, both the simulations and observations are heavily biased. In this preliminary comparison, we model these biases, but to more reliably compare the explosion energies, we recommend strategies to unbias both the simulations and observations.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftan Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 87545-1362, Los Alamos, NM
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1558715
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1774424
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-23383
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Grant/Contract Number:  
LA-UR-19-23383; 89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 489 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; statistical methods; massive stars; supernovae

Citation Formats

Murphy, Jeremiah W., Mabanta, Quintin, and Dolence, Joshua C. A comparison of explosion energies for simulated and observed core-collapse supernovae. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2123.
Murphy, Jeremiah W., Mabanta, Quintin, & Dolence, Joshua C. A comparison of explosion energies for simulated and observed core-collapse supernovae. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2123
Murphy, Jeremiah W., Mabanta, Quintin, and Dolence, Joshua C. Thu . "A comparison of explosion energies for simulated and observed core-collapse supernovae". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2123.
@article{osti_1558715,
title = {A comparison of explosion energies for simulated and observed core-collapse supernovae},
author = {Murphy, Jeremiah W. and Mabanta, Quintin and Dolence, Joshua C.},
abstractNote = {ABSTRACT There are now 20 multidimensional core-collapse supernova (CCSN) simulations that explode. However, these simulations have explosion energies that are a few times 1050 erg, not 1051 erg. In this manuscript, we compare the inferred explosion energies of these simulations and observations of 40 SN IIP. Assuming a lognormal distribution, the mean explosion energy for these observations is $\mu _{\rm obs} = -0.23^{+0.08}_{-0.12}$ ($\log _{10}(E/10^{51}\, {\rm erg})$) and the width is $\sigma _{\rm obs} = 0.52^{+0.09}_{-0.08}$. Only three CCSN codes have sufficient simulations to compare with observations: CHIMERA, CoCoNuT-FMT, and FORNAX. Currently, FORNAX has the largest sample of simulations. The two-dimensional FORNAX simulations show a correlation between explosion energy and progenitor mass, ranging from linear to quadratic, Esim ∝ M1 − 2; this correlation is consistent with inferences from observations. In addition, we infer the ratio of the observed-to-simulated explosion energies, Δ = log10(Eobs/Esim). For the CHIMERA set, Δ = 0.25 ± 0.07; for CoCoNuT-FMT, Δ = 0.49 ± 0.07; for FORNAX2D, Δ = 0.62 ± 0.06, and for FORNAX3D, Δ = 0.85 ± 0.07. On average, the simulations are less energetic than inferred energies from observations (Δ ≈ 0.6), but we also note that the variation among the simulations [max(Δ) − min(Δ) ≈ 0.6] is as large as this average offset. This suggests that further improvements to the simulations could resolve the discrepancy. Furthermore, both the simulations and observations are heavily biased. In this preliminary comparison, we model these biases, but to more reliably compare the explosion energies, we recommend strategies to unbias both the simulations and observations.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2123},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 489,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
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https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2123

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