# Natural ${Z}^{\prime}$ -portal Majorana dark matter in alternative U(1) extended standard model

## Abstract

We consider a nonexotic gauged U(1)_{X} extension of the Standard Model (SM), where the U(1)_{X} charge of a SM field is given by a linear combination of its hypercharge and baryon-minus-lepton (B–L) number. All the gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies are canceled in this model with the introduction of three right-handed neutrinos (RHNs). Unlike the conventional minimal U(1)_{X} model, where a universal U(1)_{X} charge of –1 is assigned to three RHNs, we consider an alternative charge assignment, namely, two RHNs ($N$$^{1,2}_{R}$$) have U(1)_{X} charge –4 while one RHN (N_{R}) has a +5 charge. With a minimal extension of the Higgs sector, the three RHNs acquire their Majorana masses associated with U(1)_{X} symmetry breaking. While $N$$^{1,2}_{R}$$ have Yukawa coupling with the SM lepton doublets and play an essential role for the “minimal seesaw” mechanism, NR is isolated from the SM particles due to its U(1)_{X} charge and hence it is a natural candidate for the dark matter (DM) without invoking additional symmetries. In this model context, we investigate the Z'-portal RHN DM scenario, where the RHN DM communicates with the SM particles through the U(1)_{X} gauge boson (Z' boson). We identify a narrow parameter space by combining the constraints from the observed DM relic abundance, the results of the search for a Z' boson resonance at the Large Hadron Collider Run-2, and the gauge coupling perturbativity up to the Planck/grand unification scale. A special choice of U(1)_{X} charges for the SM fields allows us to extend the model to SU(5) × U(1)_{X} grand unification. In this scenario, the model parameter space is more severely constrained, which will be explored at future high energy collider experiments.

- Authors:

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1558695

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1612043

- Grant/Contract Number:
- SC0012447; SC-0013880; SC0013880

- Resource Type:
- Published Article

- Journal Name:
- Physical Review D

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Name: Physical Review D Journal Volume: 100 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010

- Publisher:
- American Physical Society

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy & Astrophysics; Physics; Extensions of fermion sector; Extensions of gauge sector; Grand unified models; Particle dark matter; Vacuum stability

### Citation Formats

```
Okada, Nobuchika, Okada, Satomi, and Raut, Digesh. Natural Z ′ -portal Majorana dark matter in alternative U(1) extended standard model. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.035022.
```

```
Okada, Nobuchika, Okada, Satomi, & Raut, Digesh. Natural Z ′ -portal Majorana dark matter in alternative U(1) extended standard model. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.035022
```

```
Okada, Nobuchika, Okada, Satomi, and Raut, Digesh. Thu .
"Natural Z ′ -portal Majorana dark matter in alternative U(1) extended standard model". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.035022.
```

```
@article{osti_1558695,
```

title = {Natural Z ′ -portal Majorana dark matter in alternative U(1) extended standard model},

author = {Okada, Nobuchika and Okada, Satomi and Raut, Digesh},

abstractNote = {We consider a nonexotic gauged U(1)X extension of the Standard Model (SM), where the U(1)X charge of a SM field is given by a linear combination of its hypercharge and baryon-minus-lepton (B–L) number. All the gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies are canceled in this model with the introduction of three right-handed neutrinos (RHNs). Unlike the conventional minimal U(1)X model, where a universal U(1)X charge of –1 is assigned to three RHNs, we consider an alternative charge assignment, namely, two RHNs ($N$$^{1,2}_{R}$) have U(1)X charge –4 while one RHN (NR) has a +5 charge. With a minimal extension of the Higgs sector, the three RHNs acquire their Majorana masses associated with U(1)X symmetry breaking. While $N$$^{1,2}_{R}$ have Yukawa coupling with the SM lepton doublets and play an essential role for the “minimal seesaw” mechanism, NR is isolated from the SM particles due to its U(1)X charge and hence it is a natural candidate for the dark matter (DM) without invoking additional symmetries. In this model context, we investigate the Z'-portal RHN DM scenario, where the RHN DM communicates with the SM particles through the U(1)X gauge boson (Z' boson). We identify a narrow parameter space by combining the constraints from the observed DM relic abundance, the results of the search for a Z' boson resonance at the Large Hadron Collider Run-2, and the gauge coupling perturbativity up to the Planck/grand unification scale. A special choice of U(1)X charges for the SM fields allows us to extend the model to SU(5) × U(1)X grand unification. In this scenario, the model parameter space is more severely constrained, which will be explored at future high energy collider experiments.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.035022},

journal = {Physical Review D},

number = 3,

volume = 100,

place = {United States},

year = {2019},

month = {8}

}

https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.035022

*Citation information provided by*

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