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Title: Data-driven estimation of the invisible energy of cosmic ray showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory

Abstract

The determination of the primary energy of extensive air showers using the fluorescence detection technique requires an estimation of the energy carried away by particles that do not deposit all their energy in the atmosphere. This estimation is typically made using Monte Carlo simulations and thus depends on the assumed primary particle mass and on model predictions for neutrino and muon production. In this work we present a new method to obtain the invisible energy from events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Here, the method uses measurements of the muon number at ground level, and it allows us to reduce significantly the systematic uncertainties related to the mass composition and the high energy hadronic interaction models, and consequently to improve the estimation of the energy scale of the Observatory.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
The Pierre Auger Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1558447
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1572103
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1901.08040; FERMILAB-PUB-19-040-ND-PPD-TD
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; oai:inspirehep.net:1716619
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; FR02-04ER41300; FG02-99ER41107; SC0011689
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; cosmic ray & astroparticle detectors; cosmic rays astroparticles

Citation Formats

Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Albury, J. M., Allekotte, I., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Bakalova, A., Balaceanu, A., Barbato, F., Barreira Luz, R. J., Baur, S., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, L., Calcagni, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Carceller, J. M., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Catalani, F., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cerda, M., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Chytka, L., Clay, R. W., Cobos Cerutti, A. C., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Condorelli, A., Consolati, G., Contreras, F., Convenga, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., Day, J. A., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., De Mauro, G., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Oliveira Salles, F. O., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., del Río, M., Deligny, O., Dhital, N., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorosti, Q., dos Anjos, R. C., Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Escobar, C. O., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Farmer, J., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Feldbusch, F., Fenu, F., Ferreyro, L. P., Figueira, J. M., Filipčič, A., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., García, B., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glombitza, J., Gobbi, F., Golup, G., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., Gongora, J. P., González, N., Goos, I., Góra, D., Gorgi, A., Gottowik, M., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Guido, E., Halliday, R., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harvey, V. M., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E. M., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Jurysek, J., Kääpä, A., Kampert, K. H., Keilhauer, B., Kemmerich, N., Kemp, J., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Kuempel, D., Kukec Mezek, G., Kuotb Awad, A., Lago, B. L., LaHurd, D., Lang, R. G., Legumina, R., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Lenok, V., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Lippmann, O. C., Lo Presti, D., Lopes, L., López, R., López Casado, A., Lorek, R., Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mancarella, G., Mandat, D., Manning, B. C., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Mastrodicasa, M., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Merenda, K. -D., Michal, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Morlino, G., Mostafá, M., Müller, A. L., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Mussa, R., Nellen, L., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Nucita, A., Núñez, L. A., Olinto, A., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Panetta, M. P., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perlin, M., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Pierog, T., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Poh, J., Pont, B., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Puyleart, A., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollan, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Reininghaus, M., Ridky, J., Riehn, F., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Roncoroni, M. J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Ruehl, P., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Salina, G., Sanabria Gomez, J. D., Sánchez, F., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Savina, P., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schimassek, M., Schimp, M., Schlüter, F., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schröder, S., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Scornavacche, M., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Sima, O., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Soriano, J. F., Souchard, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Stassi, P., Stolpovskiy, M., Streich, A., Suarez, F., Suárez-Durán, M., Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Šupík, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taboada, A., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tomé, B., Torralba Elipe, G., Travaini, A., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Tueros, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Veberič, D., Ventura, C., Vergara Quispe, I. D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vink, J., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiedeński, M., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wirtz, M., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Yang, L., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zehrer, L., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Data-driven estimation of the invisible energy of cosmic ray showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082003.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Albury, J. M., Allekotte, I., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Bakalova, A., Balaceanu, A., Barbato, F., Barreira Luz, R. J., Baur, S., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, L., Calcagni, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Carceller, J. M., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Catalani, F., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cerda, M., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Chytka, L., Clay, R. W., Cobos Cerutti, A. C., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Condorelli, A., Consolati, G., Contreras, F., Convenga, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., Day, J. A., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., De Mauro, G., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Oliveira Salles, F. O., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., del Río, M., Deligny, O., Dhital, N., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorosti, Q., dos Anjos, R. C., Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Escobar, C. O., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Farmer, J., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Feldbusch, F., Fenu, F., Ferreyro, L. P., Figueira, J. M., Filipčič, A., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., García, B., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glombitza, J., Gobbi, F., Golup, G., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., Gongora, J. P., González, N., Goos, I., Góra, D., Gorgi, A., Gottowik, M., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Guido, E., Halliday, R., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harvey, V. M., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E. M., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Jurysek, J., Kääpä, A., Kampert, K. H., Keilhauer, B., Kemmerich, N., Kemp, J., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Kuempel, D., Kukec Mezek, G., Kuotb Awad, A., Lago, B. L., LaHurd, D., Lang, R. G., Legumina, R., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Lenok, V., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Lippmann, O. C., Lo Presti, D., Lopes, L., López, R., López Casado, A., Lorek, R., Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mancarella, G., Mandat, D., Manning, B. C., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Mastrodicasa, M., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Merenda, K. -D., Michal, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Morlino, G., Mostafá, M., Müller, A. L., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Mussa, R., Nellen, L., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Nucita, A., Núñez, L. A., Olinto, A., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Panetta, M. P., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perlin, M., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Pierog, T., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Poh, J., Pont, B., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Puyleart, A., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollan, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Reininghaus, M., Ridky, J., Riehn, F., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Roncoroni, M. J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Ruehl, P., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Salina, G., Sanabria Gomez, J. D., Sánchez, F., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Savina, P., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schimassek, M., Schimp, M., Schlüter, F., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schröder, S., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Scornavacche, M., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Sima, O., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Soriano, J. F., Souchard, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Stassi, P., Stolpovskiy, M., Streich, A., Suarez, F., Suárez-Durán, M., Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Šupík, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taboada, A., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tomé, B., Torralba Elipe, G., Travaini, A., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Tueros, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Veberič, D., Ventura, C., Vergara Quispe, I. D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vink, J., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiedeński, M., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wirtz, M., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Yang, L., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zehrer, L., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., & Zuccarello, F. Data-driven estimation of the invisible energy of cosmic ray showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082003
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Albuquerque, I. F. M., Albury, J. M., Allekotte, I., Almela, A., Alvarez Castillo, J., Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Bakalova, A., Balaceanu, A., Barbato, F., Barreira Luz, R. J., Baur, S., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, L., Calcagni, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Carceller, J. M., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Catalani, F., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cerda, M., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Chytka, L., Clay, R. W., Cobos Cerutti, A. C., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Condorelli, A., Consolati, G., Contreras, F., Convenga, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., Day, J. A., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., De Mauro, G., de Mello Neto, J. R. T., De Mitri, I., de Oliveira, J., de Oliveira Salles, F. O., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., del Río, M., Deligny, O., Dhital, N., Díaz Castro, M. L., Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D’Olivo, J. C., Dorosti, Q., dos Anjos, R. C., Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Escobar, C. O., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Farmer, J., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Feldbusch, F., Fenu, F., Ferreyro, L. P., Figueira, J. M., Filipčič, A., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., García, B., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glombitza, J., Gobbi, F., Golup, G., Gómez Berisso, M., Gómez Vitale, P. F., Gongora, J. P., González, N., Goos, I., Góra, D., Gorgi, A., Gottowik, M., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Guido, E., Halliday, R., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harvey, V. M., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E. M., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Jurysek, J., Kääpä, A., Kampert, K. H., Keilhauer, B., Kemmerich, N., Kemp, J., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Kuempel, D., Kukec Mezek, G., Kuotb Awad, A., Lago, B. L., LaHurd, D., Lang, R. G., Legumina, R., Leigui de Oliveira, M. A., Lenok, V., Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Lippmann, O. C., Lo Presti, D., Lopes, L., López, R., López Casado, A., Lorek, R., Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mancarella, G., Mandat, D., Manning, B. C., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Martínez Bravo, O., Mastrodicasa, M., Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Merenda, K. -D., Michal, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Morlino, G., Mostafá, M., Müller, A. L., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Mussa, R., Nellen, L., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, L., Nucita, A., Núñez, L. A., Olinto, A., Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Panetta, M. P., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perlin, M., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Pierog, T., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Poh, J., Pont, B., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Puyleart, A., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollan, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Reininghaus, M., Ridky, J., Riehn, F., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., Rodrigues de Carvalho, W., Rodriguez Rojo, J., Roncoroni, M. J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Ruehl, P., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salamida, F., Salazar, H., Salina, G., Sanabria Gomez, J. D., Sánchez, F., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Savina, P., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schimassek, M., Schimp, M., Schlüter, F., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schröder, S., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Scornavacche, M., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Sima, O., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Soriano, J. F., Souchard, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Stassi, P., Stolpovskiy, M., Streich, A., Suarez, F., Suárez-Durán, M., Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Šupík, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taboada, A., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Timmermans, C., Todero Peixoto, C. J., Tomé, B., Torralba Elipe, G., Travaini, A., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Tueros, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valdés Galicia, J. F., Valiño, I., Valore, L., van Bodegom, P., van den Berg, A. M., van Vliet, A., Varela, E., Vargas Cárdenas, B., Veberič, D., Ventura, C., Vergara Quispe, I. D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vink, J., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiedeński, M., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wirtz, M., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Yang, L., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zehrer, L., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Fri . "Data-driven estimation of the invisible energy of cosmic ray showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082003. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1558447.
@article{osti_1558447,
title = {Data-driven estimation of the invisible energy of cosmic ray showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory},
author = {Aab, A. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Albuquerque, I. F. M. and Albury, J. M. and Allekotte, I. and Almela, A. and Alvarez Castillo, J. and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Anastasi, G. A. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andrada, B. and Andringa, S. and Aramo, C. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Avila, G. and Badescu, A. M. and Bakalova, A. and Balaceanu, A. and Barbato, F. and Barreira Luz, R. J. and Baur, S. and Becker, K. H. and Bellido, J. A. and Berat, C. and Bertaina, M. E. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Biteau, J. and Blaess, S. G. and Blanco, A. and Blazek, J. and Bleve, C. and Boháčová, M. and Boncioli, D. and Bonifazi, C. and Borodai, N. and Botti, A. M. and Brack, J. and Bretz, T. and Bridgeman, A. and Briechle, F. L. and Buchholz, P. and Bueno, A. and Buitink, S. and Buscemi, M. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caccianiga, L. and Calcagni, L. and Cancio, A. and Canfora, F. and Carceller, J. M. and Caruso, R. and Castellina, A. and Catalani, F. and Cataldi, G. and Cazon, L. and Cerda, M. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chudoba, J. and Chytka, L. and Clay, R. W. and Cobos Cerutti, A. C. and Colalillo, R. and Coleman, A. and Coluccia, M. R. and Conceição, R. and Condorelli, A. and Consolati, G. and Contreras, F. and Convenga, F. and Cooper, M. J. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Daniel, B. and Dasso, S. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and Day, J. A. and de Almeida, R. M. and de Jong, S. J. and De Mauro, G. and de Mello Neto, J. R. T. and De Mitri, I. and de Oliveira, J. and de Oliveira Salles, F. O. and de Souza, V. and Debatin, J. and del Río, M. and Deligny, O. and Dhital, N. and Díaz Castro, M. L. and Diogo, F. and Dobrigkeit, C. and D’Olivo, J. C. and Dorosti, Q. and dos Anjos, R. C. and Dova, M. T. and Dundovic, A. and Ebr, J. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Etchegoyen, A. and Falcke, H. and Farmer, J. and Farrar, G. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Feldbusch, F. and Fenu, F. and Ferreyro, L. P. and Figueira, J. M. and Filipčič, A. and Freire, M. M. and Fujii, T. and Fuster, A. and García, B. and Gemmeke, H. and Gherghel-Lascu, A. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giammarchi, M. and Giller, M. and Głas, D. and Glombitza, J. and Gobbi, F. and Golup, G. and Gómez Berisso, M. and Gómez Vitale, P. F. and Gongora, J. P. and González, N. and Goos, I. and Góra, D. and Gorgi, A. and Gottowik, M. and Grubb, T. D. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Guido, E. and Halliday, R. and Hampel, M. R. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harrison, T. A. and Harvey, V. M. and Haungs, A. and Hebbeker, T. and Heck, D. and Heimann, P. and Hill, G. C. and Hojvat, C. and Holt, E. M. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horvath, P. and Hrabovský, M. and Huege, T. and Hulsman, J. and Insolia, A. and Isar, P. G. and Jandt, I. and Johnsen, J. A. and Josebachuili, M. and Jurysek, J. and Kääpä, A. and Kampert, K. H. and Keilhauer, B. and Kemmerich, N. and Kemp, J. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Krause, R. and Kuempel, D. and Kukec Mezek, G. and Kuotb Awad, A. and Lago, B. L. and LaHurd, D. and Lang, R. G. and Legumina, R. and Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. and Lenok, V. and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and Lippmann, O. C. and Lo Presti, D. and Lopes, L. and López, R. and López Casado, A. and Lorek, R. and Luce, Q. and Lucero, A. and Malacari, M. and Mancarella, G. and Mandat, D. and Manning, B. C. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Mariş, I. C. and Marsella, G. and Martello, D. and Martinez, H. and Martínez Bravo, O. and Mastrodicasa, M. and Mathes, H. J. and Mathys, S. and Matthews, J. and Matthiae, G. and Mayotte, E. and Mazur, P. O. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Melo, D. and Menshikov, A. and Merenda, K. -D. and Michal, S. and Micheletti, M. I. and Middendorf, L. and Miramonti, L. and Mitrica, B. and Mockler, D. and Mollerach, S. and Montanet, F. and Morello, C. and Morlino, G. and Mostafá, M. and Müller, A. L. and Muller, M. A. and Müller, S. and Mussa, R. and Nellen, L. and Nguyen, P. H. and Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. and Niechciol, M. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Novotny, V. and Nožka, L. and Nucita, A. and Núñez, L. A. and Olinto, A. and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Panetta, M. P. and Papenbreer, P. and Parente, G. and Parra, A. and Pech, M. and Pedreira, F. and Pȩkala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Peña-Rodriguez, J. and Pereira, L. A. S. and Perlin, M. and Perrone, L. and Peters, C. and Petrera, S. and Phuntsok, J. and Pierog, T. and Pimenta, M. and Pirronello, V. and Platino, M. and Poh, J. and Pont, B. and Porowski, C. and Prado, R. R. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Puyleart, A. and Querchfeld, S. and Quinn, S. and Ramos-Pollan, R. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravignani, D. and Reininghaus, M. and Ridky, J. and Riehn, F. and Risse, M. and Ristori, P. and Rizi, V. and Rodrigues de Carvalho, W. and Rodriguez Rojo, J. and Roncoroni, M. J. and Roth, M. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Ruehl, P. and Saffi, S. J. and Saftoiu, A. and Salamida, F. and Salazar, H. and Salina, G. and Sanabria Gomez, J. D. and Sánchez, F. and Santos, E. M. and Santos, E. and Sarazin, F. and Sarmento, R. and Sarmiento-Cano, C. and Sato, R. and Savina, P. and Schauer, M. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schimassek, M. and Schimp, M. and Schlüter, F. and Schmidt, D. and Scholten, O. and Schovánek, P. and Schröder, F. G. and Schröder, S. and Schumacher, J. and Sciutto, S. J. and Scornavacche, M. and Shellard, R. C. and Sigl, G. and Silli, G. and Sima, O. and Šmída, R. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Soriano, J. F. and Souchard, J. and Squartini, R. and Stanca, D. and Stanič, S. and Stasielak, J. and Stassi, P. and Stolpovskiy, M. and Streich, A. and Suarez, F. and Suárez-Durán, M. and Sudholz, T. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Šupík, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Taboada, A. and Taborda, O. A. and Tapia, A. and Timmermans, C. and Todero Peixoto, C. J. and Tomé, B. and Torralba Elipe, G. and Travaini, A. and Travnicek, P. and Trini, M. and Tueros, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Valdés Galicia, J. F. and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and van Bodegom, P. and van den Berg, A. M. and van Vliet, A. and Varela, E. and Vargas Cárdenas, B. and Veberič, D. and Ventura, C. and Vergara Quispe, I. D. and Verzi, V. and Vicha, J. and Villaseñor, L. and Vink, J. and Vorobiov, S. and Wahlberg, H. and Watson, A. A. and Weber, M. and Weindl, A. and Wiedeński, M. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyński, H. and Winchen, T. and Wirtz, M. and Wittkowski, D. and Wundheiler, B. and Yang, L. and Yushkov, A. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zehrer, L. and Zepeda, A. and Zimmermann, B. and Ziolkowski, M. and Zong, Z. and Zuccarello, F.},
abstractNote = {The determination of the primary energy of extensive air showers using the fluorescence detection technique requires an estimation of the energy carried away by particles that do not deposit all their energy in the atmosphere. This estimation is typically made using Monte Carlo simulations and thus depends on the assumed primary particle mass and on model predictions for neutrino and muon production. In this work we present a new method to obtain the invisible energy from events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Here, the method uses measurements of the muon number at ground level, and it allows us to reduce significantly the systematic uncertainties related to the mass composition and the high energy hadronic interaction models, and consequently to improve the estimation of the energy scale of the Observatory.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.082003},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 8,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Correlation between the invisible energy and the number of muons reaching ground level for primaries of different masses all with energy of 3 x 1018 eV.

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