skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Effect of proton irradiation on anatase TiO2 nanotube anodes for lithium-ion batteries

Abstract

The role of defects in the charge transfer and transport properties of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries has recently garnered increased interest. It is widely recognized that ion irradiation promotes the formation of defects within a crystalline solid. Among all ion species used for irradiation, protons are expected to create primarily simple Frenkel pair point defects without significantly changing the stoichiometry of the damaged region of the target material. This work investigates the effect of proton irradiation at varying temperatures on the electrochemical properties of anatase TiO2 nanotube (TiO2-NT) electrode for lithium-ion battery applications. Anatase TiO2-NTs are irradiated at both room temperature (25 degrees C) and 250 degrees C and compared with non-irradiated control specimens. Characterization by Raman spectroscopy and XRD suggests that the irradiation at both temperatures does not alter the long-range order of the nanotubes. However, high-resolution TEM reveals that defect clusters are formed upon irradiation and increase in size with increasing temperature. Both irradiated samples exhibit increased capacity and enhanced rate capability compared with the non-irradiated control, which can be explained by increased storage sites as well as improved Li+ diffusivity due to the presence of irradiation-induced defects. This study presents a unique perspective on pathways tomore » engineer functional nanostructured electrode materials by tailoring irradiation conditions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [5];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Boise State Univ., ID (United States)
  2. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  5. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1558076
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1566146
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-26408
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; AC52-06NA25396; AC04-94AL85000; DMR-1408949; DMR-1838604; DMR-1838605; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 54; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2461
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; nanotube; proton irradiation; charge transfer and transport; defects; lithium-ion battery anode

Citation Formats

Smith, Kassiopeia A., Savva, Andreas I., Mao, Keyou S., Wang, Yongqiang, Tenne, Dmitri A., Chen, Di, Liu, Yuzi, Barnes, Pete, Deng, Changjian, Butt, Darryl P., Wharry, Janelle P., and Xiong, Hui. Effect of proton irradiation on anatase TiO2 nanotube anodes for lithium-ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-019-03825-w.
Smith, Kassiopeia A., Savva, Andreas I., Mao, Keyou S., Wang, Yongqiang, Tenne, Dmitri A., Chen, Di, Liu, Yuzi, Barnes, Pete, Deng, Changjian, Butt, Darryl P., Wharry, Janelle P., & Xiong, Hui. Effect of proton irradiation on anatase TiO2 nanotube anodes for lithium-ion batteries. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-019-03825-w
Smith, Kassiopeia A., Savva, Andreas I., Mao, Keyou S., Wang, Yongqiang, Tenne, Dmitri A., Chen, Di, Liu, Yuzi, Barnes, Pete, Deng, Changjian, Butt, Darryl P., Wharry, Janelle P., and Xiong, Hui. Thu . "Effect of proton irradiation on anatase TiO2 nanotube anodes for lithium-ion batteries". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-019-03825-w. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1558076.
@article{osti_1558076,
title = {Effect of proton irradiation on anatase TiO2 nanotube anodes for lithium-ion batteries},
author = {Smith, Kassiopeia A. and Savva, Andreas I. and Mao, Keyou S. and Wang, Yongqiang and Tenne, Dmitri A. and Chen, Di and Liu, Yuzi and Barnes, Pete and Deng, Changjian and Butt, Darryl P. and Wharry, Janelle P. and Xiong, Hui},
abstractNote = {The role of defects in the charge transfer and transport properties of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries has recently garnered increased interest. It is widely recognized that ion irradiation promotes the formation of defects within a crystalline solid. Among all ion species used for irradiation, protons are expected to create primarily simple Frenkel pair point defects without significantly changing the stoichiometry of the damaged region of the target material. This work investigates the effect of proton irradiation at varying temperatures on the electrochemical properties of anatase TiO2 nanotube (TiO2-NT) electrode for lithium-ion battery applications. Anatase TiO2-NTs are irradiated at both room temperature (25 degrees C) and 250 degrees C and compared with non-irradiated control specimens. Characterization by Raman spectroscopy and XRD suggests that the irradiation at both temperatures does not alter the long-range order of the nanotubes. However, high-resolution TEM reveals that defect clusters are formed upon irradiation and increase in size with increasing temperature. Both irradiated samples exhibit increased capacity and enhanced rate capability compared with the non-irradiated control, which can be explained by increased storage sites as well as improved Li+ diffusivity due to the presence of irradiation-induced defects. This study presents a unique perspective on pathways to engineer functional nanostructured electrode materials by tailoring irradiation conditions.},
doi = {10.1007/s10853-019-03825-w},
journal = {Journal of Materials Science},
number = 20,
volume = 54,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
journal, April 2008

  • Bruce, Peter G.; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 47, Issue 16, p. 2930-2946
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702505

Green energy storage materials: Nanostructured TiO2 and Sn-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries
journal, January 2009

  • Deng, Da; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Jim Yang
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 2, Issue 8, p. 818-837
  • DOI: 10.1039/b823474d

Nanostructures and lithium electrochemical reactivity of lithium titanites and titanium oxides: A review
journal, July 2009


Ti-based compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries
journal, January 2012

  • Zhu, Guan-Nan; Wang, Yong-Gang; Xia, Yong-Yao
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03410g

Structural and thermal parameters for rutile and anatase
journal, August 1991

  • Howard, C. J.; Sabine, T. M.; Dickson, F.
  • Acta Crystallographica Section B Structural Science, Vol. 47, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1107/S010876819100335X

Lithium insertion in different TiO2 modifications
journal, September 1988


Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices
journal, May 2005

  • Aricò, Antonino Salvatore; Bruce, Peter; Scrosati, Bruno
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 5, p. 366-377
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1368

Constructing Hierarchical Spheres from Large Ultrathin Anatase TiO 2 Nanosheets with Nearly 100% Exposed (001) Facets for Fast Reversible Lithium Storage
journal, May 2010

  • Chen, Jun Song; Tan, Yi Ling; Li, Chang Ming
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja100102y

Lithium Storage in Nanostructured TiO 2 Made by Hydrothermal Growth
journal, February 2004

  • Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Zukalová, Markéta
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm035046g

Size effects on mass transport and storage in lithium batteries
journal, December 2007


Nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion
journal, January 2008

  • Manthiram, A.; Vadivel Murugan, A.; Sarkar, A.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 1, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/b811802g

Large Impact of Particle Size on Insertion Reactions. A Case for Anatase Li x TiO 2
journal, April 2007

  • Wagemaker, Marnix; Borghols, Wouter J. H.; Mulder, Fokko M.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 129, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja067733p

Developments in Nanostructured Cathode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal, June 2008


Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries
journal, November 2001

  • Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M.
  • Nature, Vol. 414, Issue 6861, p. 359-367
  • DOI: 10.1038/35104644

Alternative Li-Ion Battery Electrode Based on Self-Organized Titania Nanotubes
journal, January 2009

  • Ortiz, Gregorio F.; Hanzu, Ilie; Djenizian, Thierry
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm801670u

Effects of proton irradiation on structural and electrochemical charge storage properties of TiO 2 nanotube electrodes for lithium-ion batteries
journal, January 2017

  • Smith, Kassiopeia A.; Savva, Andreas I.; Deng, Changjian
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7TA01026E

Compositional Tuning of Structural Stability of Lithiated Cubic Titania via a Vacancy-Filling Mechanism under High Pressure
journal, February 2013


Something from Nothing: Enhancing Electrochemical Charge Storage with Cation Vacancies
journal, May 2012

  • Hahn, Benjamin P.; Long, Jeffrey W.; Rolison, Debra R.
  • Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 46, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/ar200238w

Intercalation of Sodium Ions into Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
journal, January 2013

  • Koo, Bonil; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 2, p. 245-252
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm303611z

Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Application in Lithium Ion Batteries
journal, April 2012

  • Koo, Bonil; Xiong, Hui; Slater, Michael D.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 5, p. 2429-2435
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl3004286

Defect generation in TiO 2 nanotube anodes via heat treatment in various atmospheres for lithium-ion batteries
journal, January 2018

  • Savva, Andreas I.; Smith, Kassiopeia A.; Lawson, Matthew
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 20, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8CP04368J

Radiation damage evolution in ceramics
journal, September 2009

  • Devanathan, Ram
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 267, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.06.020

Characteristics of microstructural evolution of radiation damage in ceramics under fusion environment
journal, March 1991


Defect production in ceramics
journal, November 1997


Irradiation effects in amorphous ZrO 2
journal, January 1973


Electron-irradiation-induced nucleation and growth in amorphous LaPO 4 , ScPO 4 , and zircon
journal, July 1997

  • Meldrum, A.; Boatner, L. A.; Ewing, R. C.
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1557/JMR.1997.0250

Ion beam induced epitaxial recrystallization of alumina thin films deposited on sapphire
journal, December 1995

  • Yu, Ning; Nastasi, Michael
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 106, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-583X(95)00773-3

The crystallization of amorphous ZrO2 by thermal heating and by ion bombardment
journal, June 1970


Ion irradiation induced nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in amorphous silicon carbide at elevated temperatures
journal, July 2018


In-situ TEM study of radiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization of hydroxyapatite
journal, December 2018


Electron‐beam‐induced crystallization of isolated amorphous regions in Si, Ge, GaP, and GaAs
journal, July 1995

  • Jenc̆ic̆, I.; Bench, M. W.; Robertson, I. M.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 78, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.360764

Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors
journal, December 1992


Transient thermal processes in heavy ion irradiation of crystalline inorganic insulators
journal, May 2000

  • Toulemonde, M.; Dufour, Ch.; Meftah, A.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 166-167
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-583X(99)00799-5

Models and mechanisms of irradiation-induced amorphization in ceramics
journal, May 2000

  • Weber, W. J.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 166-167
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-583X(99)00643-6

Cooperative effect of electronic and nuclear stopping on ion irradiation damage in silica
journal, November 2012


Atomistic simulations of MeV ion irradiation of silica
journal, May 2013

  • Backman, M.; Djurabekova, F.; Pakarinen, O. H.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 303
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2012.10.020

A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate
journal, February 2016


Ion–solid interactions at the extremes of electronic energy loss: Examples for amorphous semiconductors and embedded nanostructures
journal, February 2015

  • Ridgway, M. C.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.
  • Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cossms.2014.10.001

Effects of intermediate energy heavy‐ion irradiation on the microstructure of rutile TiO 2 single crystal
journal, April 2018

  • Smith, Kassiopeia A.; Savva, Andreas I.; Wu, Yaqiao
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 101, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.15576

Ionization-induced annealing of pre-existing defects in silicon carbide
journal, August 2015

  • Zhang, Yanwen; Sachan, Ritesh; Pakarinen, Olli H.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9049

Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss: Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence
journal, January 2016


Characteristics and Photocatalytic Properties of Thin Film Prepared by Sputter Deposition and Post-N + Ion Implantation
journal, January 2012

  • Shukur, Haider A.; Sato, Mitsunobu; Nakamura, Isao
  • Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2012
  • DOI: 10.1155/2012/923769

Experimental and atomistic modeling study of ion irradiation damage in thin crystals of the TiO 2 polymorphs
journal, June 2008

  • Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Smith, Katherine L.; Blackford, Mark G.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 77, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.214201

Structural evolution of TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films by thermal annealing and swift heavy ion irradiation
journal, April 2009

  • Rath, H.; Dash, P.; Som, T.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3103333

Defects in rutile and anatase polymorphs of TiO 2 : kinetics and thermodynamics near grain boundaries
journal, September 2011


Density and structural effects in the radiation tolerance of TiO 2 polymorphs
journal, August 2013


Effects of Xe-ion irradiation at high temperature on single crystal rutile
journal, December 2002


Ion beam radiation damage effects in rutile (TiO2)
journal, May 1998

  • Hartmann, T.; Wang, L. M.; Weber, W. J.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 141, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-583X(98)00134-7

Amorphous TiO 2 Nanotube Anode for Rechargeable Sodium Ion Batteries
journal, September 2011

  • Xiong, Hui; Slater, Michael D.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1021/jz2012066

Self-Improving Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Amorphous to Cubic Phase Transition in TiO 2 Nanotubes
journal, January 2012

  • Xiong, Hui; Yildirim, Handan; Shevchenko, Elena V.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 116, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp210793u

Electropolishing valve metals with a sulfuric acid-methanol electrolyte at low temperature
journal, August 2018


Raman spectra of titanium dioxide
journal, May 1982


Raman spectra of titanium dioxide (anatase, rutile) with identified oxygen isotopes (16, 17, 18)
journal, January 2012

  • Frank, Otakar; Zukalova, Marketa; Laskova, Barbora
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cp42763j

Raman Spectra of Ti O 2 , Mg F 2 , Zn F 2 , Fe F 2 , and Mn F 2
journal, February 1967


Asymmetric Lattice Vibrational Characteristics of Rutile TiO 2 as Revealed by Laser Power Dependent Raman Spectroscopy
journal, October 2013

  • Zhang, Yuliang; Harris, Cindel X.; Wallenmeyer, Petra
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 117, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp406948e

Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2
journal, December 1978

  • Ohsaka, Toshiaki; Izumi, Fujio; Fujiki, Yoshinori
  • Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 7, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/jrs.1250070606

Raman Line Shapes of Optical Phonons of Different Symmetries in Anatase TiO 2 Nanocrystals
journal, September 2009

  • Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Arora, A. K.; Sridharan, V.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 113, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp9046193

Electron-beam induced recrystallization in amorphous apatite
journal, January 2007

  • Bae, In-Tae; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2430779

Size dependence of radiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization of synthetic nanostructured CePO4 monazite
journal, May 2013


Electron irradiation induced crystallization of amorphous MgAl2O4
journal, November 1996


Low energy electron-beam-induced recrystallization of continuous GaAs amorphous foils
journal, September 1997


Ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization of α-Al2O3 at room temperature
journal, February 2014

  • Sina, Younes; Ishimaru, Manabu; McHargue, Carl J.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 321
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2013.12.012

Amorphization and recrystallization of single-crystalline hydrogen titanate nanowires by N + ion irradiation
journal, June 2014

  • Behera, Akshaya K.; Facsko, Stefan; Bandyopadyay, Malay K.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4884677

Radiation Response of Nanocrystalline Rutile (TiO2)
journal, July 2009


Nanosized Rutile (TiO 2 ) Thin Film upon Ion Irradiation and Thermal Annealing
journal, October 2011

  • Zhang, Jiaming; Lian, Jie; Namavar, Fereydoon
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp2056283

Design of Radiation Tolerant Nanostructured Metallic Multilayers
journal, August 2012

  • Zhang, X.; Fu, E. G.; Li, Nan
  • Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 134, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.4006979

Interface-enhanced defect absorption between epitaxial anatase TiO2 film and single crystal SrTiO3
journal, November 2011


Exploring long-time response to radiation damage in MgO
journal, January 2005

  • Uberuaga, B. P.; Smith, R.; Cleave, A. R.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 228, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.10.055

Nuclear stopping power of antiprotons
journal, October 2017


Antiproton Slowing Down in H 2 and He and Evidence of Nuclear Stopping Power
journal, January 1995


Disordered 3 D Multi-layer Graphene Anode Material from CO 2 for Sodium-Ion Batteries
journal, April 2016


Solid‐State Electrochemical Kinetics of Li‐Ion Intercalation into Li1 − xCoO2: Simultaneous Application of Electroanalytical Techniques SSCV, PITT, and EIS
journal, January 1999

  • Levi, M. D.; Salitra, G.; Markovsky, B.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 146, Issue 4, p. 1279-1289
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1391759

Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes
journal, June 2009

  • Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Chan, Candace K.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 113, Issue 26, p. 11390-11398
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp901594g

Preparation and electrochemical properties of Ag-modified TiO2 nanotube anode material for lithium–ion battery
journal, March 2007


Application of A-C Techniques to the Study of Lithium Diffusion in Tungsten Trioxide Thin Films
journal, January 1980

  • Ho, C.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 127, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2129668

Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Lithium Intercalation into Carbon Anodes for Secondary Lithium Batteries
journal, January 1995

  • Takami, Norio
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 142, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2044017

Remarkably improved field emission of TiO2 nanotube arrays by annealing atmosphere engineering
journal, October 2015


Conductivity of TiO2 nanotubes: Influence of annealing time and temperature
journal, July 2010


A review of conduction phenomena in Li-ion batteries
journal, December 2010


Radiation stability of nanoclusters in nano-structured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels
journal, March 2013


Thermal conductivity degradation of ceramic materials due to low temperature, low dose neutron irradiation
journal, April 2005


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Developments in Nanostructured Cathode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries
    journal, June 2008


    Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries
    journal, April 2008

    • Bruce, Peter G.; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 47, Issue 16, p. 2930-2946
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702505

    Disordered 3 D Multi-layer Graphene Anode Material from CO 2 for Sodium-Ion Batteries
    journal, April 2016


    Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2
    journal, December 1978

    • Ohsaka, Toshiaki; Izumi, Fujio; Fujiki, Yoshinori
    • Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 7, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/jrs.1250070606

    The crystallization of amorphous ZrO2 by thermal heating and by ion bombardment
    journal, June 1970


    Characteristics of microstructural evolution of radiation damage in ceramics under fusion environment
    journal, March 1991


    Raman spectra of titanium dioxide
    journal, May 1982


    Lithium insertion in different TiO2 modifications
    journal, September 1988


    Ion beam induced epitaxial recrystallization of alumina thin films deposited on sapphire
    journal, December 1995

    • Yu, Ning; Nastasi, Michael
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 106, Issue 1-4
    • DOI: 10.1016/0168-583x(95)00773-3

    Size dependence of radiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization of synthetic nanostructured CePO4 monazite
    journal, May 2013


    A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate
    journal, February 2016


    Ion–solid interactions at the extremes of electronic energy loss: Examples for amorphous semiconductors and embedded nanostructures
    journal, February 2015

    • Ridgway, M. C.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.
    • Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, Vol. 19, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.cossms.2014.10.001

    Conductivity of TiO2 nanotubes: Influence of annealing time and temperature
    journal, July 2010


    Preparation and electrochemical properties of Ag-modified TiO2 nanotube anode material for lithium–ion battery
    journal, March 2007


    Thermal conductivity degradation of ceramic materials due to low temperature, low dose neutron irradiation
    journal, April 2005


    Radiation stability of nanoclusters in nano-structured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels
    journal, March 2013


    Ion irradiation induced nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in amorphous silicon carbide at elevated temperatures
    journal, July 2018


    In-situ TEM study of radiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization of hydroxyapatite
    journal, December 2018


    Size effects on mass transport and storage in lithium batteries
    journal, December 2007


    Nanostructures and lithium electrochemical reactivity of lithium titanites and titanium oxides: A review
    journal, July 2009


    A review of conduction phenomena in Li-ion batteries
    journal, December 2010


    Remarkably improved field emission of TiO2 nanotube arrays by annealing atmosphere engineering
    journal, October 2015


    Exploring long-time response to radiation damage in MgO
    journal, January 2005

    • Uberuaga, B. P.; Smith, R.; Cleave, A. R.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 228, Issue 1-4
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2004.10.055

    Radiation damage evolution in ceramics
    journal, September 2009

    • Devanathan, Ram
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 267, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.06.020

    Atomistic simulations of MeV ion irradiation of silica
    journal, May 2013

    • Backman, M.; Djurabekova, F.; Pakarinen, O. H.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 303
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2012.10.020

    Ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization of α-Al2O3 at room temperature
    journal, February 2014

    • Sina, Younes; Ishimaru, Manabu; McHargue, Carl J.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 321
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2013.12.012

    Interface-enhanced defect absorption between epitaxial anatase TiO2 film and single crystal SrTiO3
    journal, November 2011


    Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss: Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence
    journal, January 2016


    Electropolishing valve metals with a sulfuric acid-methanol electrolyte at low temperature
    journal, August 2018


    Effects of Xe-ion irradiation at high temperature on single crystal rutile
    journal, December 2002


    Defect production in ceramics
    journal, November 1997


    Ion beam radiation damage effects in rutile (TiO2)
    journal, May 1998

    • Hartmann, T.; Wang, L. M.; Weber, W. J.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 141, Issue 1-4
    • DOI: 10.1016/s0168-583x(98)00134-7

    Models and mechanisms of irradiation-induced amorphization in ceramics
    journal, May 2000

    • Weber, W. J.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 166-167
    • DOI: 10.1016/s0168-583x(99)00643-6

    Transient thermal processes in heavy ion irradiation of crystalline inorganic insulators
    journal, May 2000

    • Toulemonde, M.; Dufour, Ch.; Meftah, A.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 166-167
    • DOI: 10.1016/s0168-583x(99)00799-5

    Electron irradiation induced crystallization of amorphous MgAl2O4
    journal, November 1996


    Low energy electron-beam-induced recrystallization of continuous GaAs amorphous foils
    journal, September 1997


    Radiation Response of Nanocrystalline Rutile (TiO2)
    journal, July 2009


    Something from Nothing: Enhancing Electrochemical Charge Storage with Cation Vacancies
    journal, May 2012

    • Hahn, Benjamin P.; Long, Jeffrey W.; Rolison, Debra R.
    • Accounts of Chemical Research, Vol. 46, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1021/ar200238w

    Lithium Storage in Nanostructured TiO 2 Made by Hydrothermal Growth
    journal, February 2004

    • Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Zukalová, Markéta
    • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1021/cm035046g

    Intercalation of Sodium Ions into Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
    journal, January 2013

    • Koo, Bonil; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Shibata, Tomohiro
    • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 2, p. 245-252
    • DOI: 10.1021/cm303611z

    Alternative Li-Ion Battery Electrode Based on Self-Organized Titania Nanotubes
    journal, January 2009

    • Ortiz, Gregorio F.; Hanzu, Ilie; Djenizian, Thierry
    • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1021/cm801670u

    Large Impact of Particle Size on Insertion Reactions. A Case for Anatase Li x TiO 2
    journal, April 2007

    • Wagemaker, Marnix; Borghols, Wouter J. H.; Mulder, Fokko M.
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 129, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja067733p

    Constructing Hierarchical Spheres from Large Ultrathin Anatase TiO 2 Nanosheets with Nearly 100% Exposed (001) Facets for Fast Reversible Lithium Storage
    journal, May 2010

    • Chen, Jun Song; Tan, Yi Ling; Li, Chang Ming
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja100102y

    Nanosized Rutile (TiO 2 ) Thin Film upon Ion Irradiation and Thermal Annealing
    journal, October 2011

    • Zhang, Jiaming; Lian, Jie; Namavar, Fereydoon
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp2056283

    Self-Improving Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Amorphous to Cubic Phase Transition in TiO 2 Nanotubes
    journal, January 2012

    • Xiong, Hui; Yildirim, Handan; Shevchenko, Elena V.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 116, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp210793u

    Asymmetric Lattice Vibrational Characteristics of Rutile TiO 2 as Revealed by Laser Power Dependent Raman Spectroscopy
    journal, October 2013

    • Zhang, Yuliang; Harris, Cindel X.; Wallenmeyer, Petra
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 117, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp406948e

    Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes
    journal, June 2009

    • Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Chan, Candace K.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 113, Issue 26, p. 11390-11398
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp901594g

    Raman Line Shapes of Optical Phonons of Different Symmetries in Anatase TiO 2 Nanocrystals
    journal, September 2009

    • Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Arora, A. K.; Sridharan, V.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 113, Issue 39
    • DOI: 10.1021/jp9046193

    Amorphous TiO 2 Nanotube Anode for Rechargeable Sodium Ion Batteries
    journal, September 2011

    • Xiong, Hui; Slater, Michael D.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1021/jz2012066

    Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Application in Lithium Ion Batteries
    journal, April 2012

    • Koo, Bonil; Xiong, Hui; Slater, Michael D.
    • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 5, p. 2429-2435
    • DOI: 10.1021/nl3004286

    Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries
    journal, November 2001

    • Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M.
    • Nature, Vol. 414, Issue 6861, p. 359-367
    • DOI: 10.1038/35104644

    Ionization-induced annealing of pre-existing defects in silicon carbide
    journal, August 2015

    • Zhang, Yanwen; Sachan, Ritesh; Pakarinen, Olli H.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9049

    Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices
    journal, May 2005

    • Aricò, Antonino Salvatore; Bruce, Peter; Scrosati, Bruno
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 5, p. 366-377
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1368

    Nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion
    journal, January 2008

    • Manthiram, A.; Vadivel Murugan, A.; Sarkar, A.
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 1, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1039/b811802g

    Green energy storage materials: Nanostructured TiO2 and Sn-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries
    journal, January 2009

    • Deng, Da; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Jim Yang
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 2, Issue 8, p. 818-837
    • DOI: 10.1039/b823474d

    Raman spectra of titanium dioxide (anatase, rutile) with identified oxygen isotopes (16, 17, 18)
    journal, January 2012

    • Frank, Otakar; Zukalova, Marketa; Laskova, Barbora
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 42
    • DOI: 10.1039/c2cp42763j

    Ti-based compounds as anode materials for Li-ion batteries
    journal, January 2012

    • Zhu, Guan-Nan; Wang, Yong-Gang; Xia, Yong-Yao
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 5, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03410g

    Effects of proton irradiation on structural and electrochemical charge storage properties of TiO 2 nanotube electrodes for lithium-ion batteries
    journal, January 2017

    • Smith, Kassiopeia A.; Savva, Andreas I.; Deng, Changjian
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta01026e

    Defect generation in TiO 2 nanotube anodes via heat treatment in various atmospheres for lithium-ion batteries
    journal, January 2018

    • Savva, Andreas I.; Smith, Kassiopeia A.; Lawson, Matthew
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 20, Issue 35
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8cp04368j

    Electron-beam induced recrystallization in amorphous apatite
    journal, January 2007

    • Bae, In-Tae; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2430779

    Structural evolution of TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films by thermal annealing and swift heavy ion irradiation
    journal, April 2009

    • Rath, H.; Dash, P.; Som, T.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3103333

    Electron‐beam‐induced crystallization of isolated amorphous regions in Si, Ge, GaP, and GaAs
    journal, July 1995

    • Jenc̆ic̆, I.; Bench, M. W.; Robertson, I. M.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 78, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.360764

    Amorphization and recrystallization of single-crystalline hydrogen titanate nanowires by N + ion irradiation
    journal, June 2014

    • Behera, Akshaya K.; Facsko, Stefan; Bandyopadyay, Malay K.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4884677

    Irradiation effects in amorphous ZrO 2
    journal, January 1973


    Cooperative effect of electronic and nuclear stopping on ion irradiation damage in silica
    journal, November 2012


    Defects in rutile and anatase polymorphs of TiO 2 : kinetics and thermodynamics near grain boundaries
    journal, September 2011


    Density and structural effects in the radiation tolerance of TiO 2 polymorphs
    journal, August 2013


    Raman Spectra of Ti O 2 , Mg F 2 , Zn F 2 , Fe F 2 , and Mn F 2
    journal, February 1967


    Nuclear stopping power of antiprotons
    journal, October 2017


    Transient thermal process after a high-energy heavy-ion irradiation of amorphous metals and semiconductors
    journal, December 1992


    Experimental and atomistic modeling study of ion irradiation damage in thin crystals of the TiO 2 polymorphs
    journal, June 2008

    • Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Smith, Katherine L.; Blackford, Mark G.
    • Physical Review B, Vol. 77, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.77.214201

    Compositional Tuning of Structural Stability of Lithiated Cubic Titania via a Vacancy-Filling Mechanism under High Pressure
    journal, February 2013


    Antiproton Slowing Down in H 2 and He and Evidence of Nuclear Stopping Power
    journal, January 1995


    Structural and thermal parameters for rutile and anatase
    journal, August 1991

    • Howard, C. J.; Sabine, T. M.; Dickson, F.
    • Acta Crystallographica Section B Structural Science, Vol. 47, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1107/s010876819100335x

    Effects of intermediate energy heavy‐ion irradiation on the microstructure of rutile TiO 2 single crystal
    journal, April 2018

    • Smith, Kassiopeia A.; Savva, Andreas I.; Wu, Yaqiao
    • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 101, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1111/jace.15576

    Design of Radiation Tolerant Nanostructured Metallic Multilayers
    journal, August 2012

    • Zhang, X.; Fu, E. G.; Li, Nan
    • Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 134, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1115/1.4006979

    Solid‐State Electrochemical Kinetics of Li‐Ion Intercalation into Li1 − xCoO2: Simultaneous Application of Electroanalytical Techniques SSCV, PITT, and EIS
    journal, January 1999

    • Levi, M. D.; Salitra, G.; Markovsky, B.
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 146, Issue 4, p. 1279-1289
    • DOI: 10.1149/1.1391759

    Structural and Kinetic Characterization of Lithium Intercalation into Carbon Anodes for Secondary Lithium Batteries
    journal, January 1995

    • Takami, Norio
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 142, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1149/1.2044017

    Application of A-C Techniques to the Study of Lithium Diffusion in Tungsten Trioxide Thin Films
    journal, January 1980

    • Ho, C.
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 127, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1149/1.2129668

    Characteristics and Photocatalytic Properties of Thin Film Prepared by Sputter Deposition and Post-N + Ion Implantation
    journal, January 2012

    • Shukur, Haider A.; Sato, Mitsunobu; Nakamura, Isao
    • Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2012
    • DOI: 10.1155/2012/923769

    Electron-irradiation-induced nucleation and growth in amorphous LaPO 4 , ScPO 4 , and zircon
    journal, July 1997

    • Meldrum, A.; Boatner, L. A.; Ewing, R. C.
    • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 12, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.1997.0250