skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Resolved Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly Lensed z = 2.26 Galaxy SDSS J0901+1814

Abstract

We present ~1'' resolution (~2 kpc in the source plane) observations of the CO (1–0), CO (3–2), Hα, and [N II] lines in the strongly lensed z = 2.26 star-forming galaxy SDSS J0901+1814. We use these observations to constrain the lensing potential of a foreground group of galaxies, and our source-plane reconstructions indicate that SDSS J0901+1814 is a nearly face-on (i ≈ 30°) massive disk with r1/2 ≳ 4 kpc for its molecular gas. Using our new magnification factors (μtot ≈ 30), we find that SDSS J0901+1814 has a star formation rate (SFR) of $${268}_{-61}^{+63}\,{M}_{\odot }\,{\mathrm{yr}}^{-1}$$, $${M}_{\mathrm{gas}}=({1.6}_{-0.2}^{+0.3})\times {10}^{11}({\alpha }_{\mathrm{CO}}/4.6)\,{M}_{\odot }$$, and $${M}_{\star }=({9.5}_{-2.8}^{+3.8})\times {10}^{10}\,{M}_{\odot }$$, which places it on the star-forming galaxy "main sequence." We use our matched high angular resolution gas and SFR tracers (CO and Hα, respectively) to perform a spatially resolved (pixel-by-pixel) analysis of SDSS J0901+1814 in terms of the Schmidt–Kennicutt relation. After correcting for the large fraction of obscured star formation ($${\mathrm{SFR}}_{{\rm{H}}\alpha }/{\mathrm{SFR}}_{\mathrm{TIR}}={0.054}_{-0.014}^{+0.015}$$), we find that SDSS J0901+1814 is offset from "normal" star-forming galaxies to higher star formation efficiencies independent of assumptions for the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Our mean best-fit index for the Schmidt–Kennicutt relation for SDSS J0901+1814, evaluated with different CO lines and smoothing levels, is $$\bar{n}=1.54\pm 0.13;$$ however, the index may be affected by gravitational lensing, and we find $$\bar{n}=1.24\pm 0.02$$ when analyzing the source-plane reconstructions. While the Schmidt–Kennicutt index largely appears unaffected by which of the two CO transitions we use to trace the molecular gas, the source-plane reconstructions and dynamical modeling suggest that the CO (1–0) emission is more spatially extended than the CO (3–2) emission.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [7]
  1. Yale-NUS College (Singapore); McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)
  2. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
  3. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
  4. Max Planck Inst. fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)
  5. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)
  7. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1557214
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1905.09845; FERMILAB-PUB-19-366-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; 1743056
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Sharon, Chelsea E., Tagore, Amitpal S., Baker, Andrew J., Rivera, Jesus, Keeton, Charles R., Lutz, Dieter, Genzel, Reinhard, Wilner, David J., Hicks, Erin K. S., Allam, Sahar S., and Tucker, Douglas L. Resolved Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly Lensed z = 2.26 Galaxy SDSS J0901+1814. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab22b9.
Sharon, Chelsea E., Tagore, Amitpal S., Baker, Andrew J., Rivera, Jesus, Keeton, Charles R., Lutz, Dieter, Genzel, Reinhard, Wilner, David J., Hicks, Erin K. S., Allam, Sahar S., & Tucker, Douglas L. Resolved Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly Lensed z = 2.26 Galaxy SDSS J0901+1814. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab22b9
Sharon, Chelsea E., Tagore, Amitpal S., Baker, Andrew J., Rivera, Jesus, Keeton, Charles R., Lutz, Dieter, Genzel, Reinhard, Wilner, David J., Hicks, Erin K. S., Allam, Sahar S., and Tucker, Douglas L. Wed . "Resolved Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly Lensed z = 2.26 Galaxy SDSS J0901+1814". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab22b9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1557214.
@article{osti_1557214,
title = {Resolved Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties of the Strongly Lensed z = 2.26 Galaxy SDSS J0901+1814},
author = {Sharon, Chelsea E. and Tagore, Amitpal S. and Baker, Andrew J. and Rivera, Jesus and Keeton, Charles R. and Lutz, Dieter and Genzel, Reinhard and Wilner, David J. and Hicks, Erin K. S. and Allam, Sahar S. and Tucker, Douglas L.},
abstractNote = {We present ~1'' resolution (~2 kpc in the source plane) observations of the CO (1–0), CO (3–2), Hα, and [N II] lines in the strongly lensed z = 2.26 star-forming galaxy SDSS J0901+1814. We use these observations to constrain the lensing potential of a foreground group of galaxies, and our source-plane reconstructions indicate that SDSS J0901+1814 is a nearly face-on (i ≈ 30°) massive disk with r1/2 ≳ 4 kpc for its molecular gas. Using our new magnification factors (μtot ≈ 30), we find that SDSS J0901+1814 has a star formation rate (SFR) of ${268}_{-61}^{+63}\,{M}_{\odot }\,{\mathrm{yr}}^{-1}$, ${M}_{\mathrm{gas}}=({1.6}_{-0.2}^{+0.3})\times {10}^{11}({\alpha }_{\mathrm{CO}}/4.6)\,{M}_{\odot }$, and ${M}_{\star }=({9.5}_{-2.8}^{+3.8})\times {10}^{10}\,{M}_{\odot }$, which places it on the star-forming galaxy "main sequence." We use our matched high angular resolution gas and SFR tracers (CO and Hα, respectively) to perform a spatially resolved (pixel-by-pixel) analysis of SDSS J0901+1814 in terms of the Schmidt–Kennicutt relation. After correcting for the large fraction of obscured star formation (${\mathrm{SFR}}_{{\rm{H}}\alpha }/{\mathrm{SFR}}_{\mathrm{TIR}}={0.054}_{-0.014}^{+0.015}$), we find that SDSS J0901+1814 is offset from "normal" star-forming galaxies to higher star formation efficiencies independent of assumptions for the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Our mean best-fit index for the Schmidt–Kennicutt relation for SDSS J0901+1814, evaluated with different CO lines and smoothing levels, is $\bar{n}=1.54\pm 0.13;$ however, the index may be affected by gravitational lensing, and we find $\bar{n}=1.24\pm 0.02$ when analyzing the source-plane reconstructions. While the Schmidt–Kennicutt index largely appears unaffected by which of the two CO transitions we use to trace the molecular gas, the source-plane reconstructions and dynamical modeling suggest that the CO (1–0) emission is more spatially extended than the CO (3–2) emission.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab22b9},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Second Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, July 2004

  • Abazajian, Kevork; Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K.; Agüeros, Marcel A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 128, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421365

Line formation in solar granulation: V. Missing UV-opacity and the photospheric Be abundance
journal, March 2004


Dust emission from the lensed Lyman break galaxy cB58
journal, June 2001


Molecular Gas in the Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy cB58
journal, March 2004

  • Baker, Andrew J.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Genzel, Reinhard
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 604, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/381798

Classification parameters for the emission-line spectra of extragalactic objects
journal, February 1981

  • Baldwin, J. A.; Phillips, M. M.; Terlevich, R.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 93
  • DOI: 10.1086/130766

Are 12 CO lines good indicators of the star formation rate in galaxies?
journal, October 2009


The star Formation law in Nearby Galaxies on Sub-Kpc Scales
journal, November 2008


Extremely Inefficient star Formation in the Outer Disks of Nearby Galaxies
journal, October 2010


A Constant Molecular gas Depletion time in Nearby disk Galaxies
journal, March 2011


The differential magnification of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies
journal, April 1999


Submillimeter galaxies
journal, October 2002


The Spatially Resolved star Formation law from Integral Field Spectroscopy: Virus-P Observations of ngc 5194
journal, September 2009


GalPaK 3D : A BAYESIAN PARAMETRIC TOOL FOR EXTRACTING MORPHOKINEMATICS OF GALAXIES FROM 3D DATA
journal, August 2015


Dynamical Properties of z ∼ 2 Star‐forming Galaxies and a Universal Star Formation Relation
journal, December 2007

  • Bouche, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 671, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/522221

The Star Formation Rate-Dense Gas Relation in Galaxies as Measured by HCN(3-2) Emission
journal, June 2008

  • Bussmann, R. S.; Narayanan, D.; Shirley, Y. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 681, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/590181

GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODELS BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY IMAGING OF HERSCHEL -SELECTED STRONGLY LENSED SUB-MILLIMETER GALAXIES AT z > 1.5
journal, November 2013


Planck ’s dusty GEMS: IV. Star formation and feedback in a maximum starburst at z = 3 seen at 60-pc resolution⋆
journal, August 2017


Cool Gas in High-Redshift Galaxies
journal, August 2013


Dusty star-forming galaxies at high redshift
journal, August 2014


The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey: statistical strong lensing, cosmological parameters, and global properties of galaxy populations
journal, December 2003


Radio Emission from Normal Galaxies
journal, September 1992


A Detailed Study of Gas and Star Formation in a Highly Magnified Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 3.07
journal, August 2007

  • Coppin, K. E. K.; Swinbank, A. M.; Neri, R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 665, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/519789

VERY HIGH GAS FRACTIONS AND EXTENDED GAS RESERVOIRS IN z = 1.5 DISK GALAXIES
journal, March 2010


CO excitation of normal star-forming galaxies out to z = 1.5 as regulated by the properties of their interstellar medium
journal, April 2015


Multiwavelength Study of Massive Galaxies at z ∼2. I. Star Formation and Galaxy Growth
journal, November 2007

  • Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Morrison, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 670, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/521818

Different star Formation laws for Disks Versus Starbursts at low and high Redshifts
journal, April 2010


LOW MILKY-WAY-LIKE MOLECULAR GAS EXCITATION OF MASSIVE DISK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.5
journal, June 2009


AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUB-MILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SUB-MILLIMETER PROPERTIES OF COLOR-SELECTED GALAXIES
journal, December 2013


Molecular gas content in strongly lensed z ~ 1.5−3 star-forming galaxies with low infrared luminosities
journal, April 2015


THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: FOUR STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES WITH REDSHIFT > 2
journal, November 2009


Dust Masses, PAH Abundances, and Starlight Intensities in the SINGS Galaxy Sample
journal, July 2007

  • Draine, B. T.; Dale, D. A.; Bendo, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/518306

Infrared Emission from Interstellar Dust. IV. The Silicate‐Graphite‐PAH Model in the Post‐ Spitzer Era
journal, March 2007

  • Draine, B. T.; Li, Aigen
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 657, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/511055

Modelling high-resolution ALMA observations of strongly lensed highly star-forming galaxies detected by Herschel★
journal, February 2018

  • Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Dunne, L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 476, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty513

SINFONI - Integral field spectroscopy at 50 milli-arcsecond resolution with the ESO VLT
conference, March 2003

  • Eisenhauer, Frank; Abuter, Roberto; Bickert, Klaus
  • Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.459468

The reversal of the star formation-density relation in the distant universe
journal, April 2007


Velocity dispersions and mass-to-light ratios for elliptical galaxies
journal, February 1976

  • Faber, S. M.; Jackson, R. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 204
  • DOI: 10.1086/154215

Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of two Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies
journal, October 2010


COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer Observations of Galactic Lines
journal, November 1999

  • Fixsen, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Mather, J. C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/307962

THE SINS SURVEY: SINFONI INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
journal, November 2009


SINFONI Integral Field Spectroscopy of z ∼ 2 UV‐selected Galaxies: Rotation Curves and Dynamical Evolution
journal, July 2006

  • Forster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Lehnert, M. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 645, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/504403

PHIBSS2: survey design and z = 0.5 – 0.8 results: Molecular gas reservoirs during the winding-down of star formation
journal, February 2019


Towards a resolved Kennicutt-Schmidt law at high redshift
journal, May 2013


The Star Formation Rate and Dense Molecular Gas in Galaxies
journal, May 2004

  • Gao, Yu; Solomon, Philip M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 606, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/382999

From Rings to Bulges: Evidence for Rapid Secular Galaxy Evolution at z ∼ 2 from Integral Field Spectroscopy in the SINS Survey
journal, November 2008

  • Genzel, R.; Burkert, A.; Bouché, N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 687, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/591840

EVIDENCE FOR WIDE-SPREAD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN THE MOST MASSIVE z ∼ 1-2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
journal, October 2014

  • Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 796, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/796/1/7

THE METALLICITY DEPENDENCE OF THE CO → H 2 CONVERSION FACTOR IN z ⩾ 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
journal, January 2012


The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang
journal, August 2006

  • Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Eisenhauer, F.
  • Nature, Vol. 442, Issue 7104
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05052

A study of the gas-star formation relation over cosmic time★: Gas-star formation relation over cosmic time
journal, September 2010


PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS, EXTINCTION, STAR FORMATION, AND KINEMATICS IN THE z = 1.5 STAR-FORMING GALAXY EGS13011166
journal, July 2013


Lyman-Break Galaxies
journal, September 2002


Evidence of enhanced star formation efficiency in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies
journal, December 2007

  • Graciá-Carpio, J.; García-Burillo, S.; Planesas, P.
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 479, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20078223

STAR FORMATION RELATIONS AND CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS ACROSS THE J -LADDER AND REDSHIFT
journal, October 2014


REST-FRAME OPTICAL SPECTRA OF THREE STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2
journal, July 2009

  • Hainline, Kevin N.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kornei, Katherine A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 701, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/701/1/52

Dust-Corrected star Formation Rates of Galaxies. ii. Combinations of Ultraviolet and Infrared Tracers
journal, October 2011

  • Hao, Cai-Na; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Johnson, Benjamin D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 741, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/124

Dark Matter Substructure Detection Using Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of Lensed Dusty Galaxies
journal, March 2013


Detection of Lensing Substructure Using alma Observations of the Dusty Galaxy Sdp.81
journal, May 2016

  • Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 823, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/823/1/37

EVIDENCE FOR A CLUMPY, ROTATING GAS DISK IN A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4
journal, October 2012


The Kiloparsec-Scale star Formation law at Redshift 4: Widespread, Highly Efficient star Formation in the Dust-Obscured Starburst Galaxy gn20
journal, December 2014


Effects of Ellipticity and Shear on Gravitational Lens Statistics
journal, May 2005

  • Huterer, Dragan; Keeton, Charles R.; Ma, Chung‐Pei
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 624, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/429153

Tracing the molecular gas in distant submillimetre galaxies via CO(1-0) imaging with the Expanded Very Large Array: EVLA imaging of CO(1-0) in submm galaxies
journal, January 2011


Star Formation at z = 2.481 in the Lensed Galaxy SDSS J1110+6459: Star Formation Down to 30 pc Scales
journal, July 2017

  • Johnson, Traci L.; Rigby, Jane R.; Sharon, Keren
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 843, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa7516

Enhanced Dense gas Fraction in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies
journal, December 2009


${L}_{\mathrm{CO}}^{\prime }/{L}_{\mathrm{FIR}}$ RELATIONS WITH CO ROTATIONAL LADDERS OF GALAXIES ACROSS THE HERSCHEL SPIRE ARCHIVE
journal, September 2016


The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei
journal, December 2003

  • Kauffmann, Guinevere; Heckman, Timothy M.; Tremonti, Christy
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 346, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2003.07154.x

Star Formation in the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies
journal, September 2012


The star formation law in galactic disks
journal, September 1989

  • Kennicutt, Robert C. , Jr.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 344
  • DOI: 10.1086/167834

The Global Schmidt Law in Star‐forming Galaxies
journal, May 1998

  • Kennicutt, Jr., Robert C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 498, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305588

Star Formation in NGC 5194 (M51a). II. The Spatially Resolved Star Formation Law
journal, December 2007

  • Kennicutt, Jr., Robert C.; Calzetti, Daniela; Walter, Fabian
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 671, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/522300

Dust-Corrected star Formation Rates of Galaxies. i. Combinations of hα and Infrared Tracers
journal, September 2009


Theoretical Evolution of Optical Strong Lines Across Cosmic time
journal, August 2013


The Cosmic bpt Diagram: Confronting Theory with Observations
journal, August 2013


SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE ( WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
journal, January 2011

  • Komatsu, E.; Smith, K. M.; Dunkley, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 192, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/2/18

Bolometer array development at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie
conference, July 1998

  • Kreysa, Ernst; Gemuend, Hans-Peter; Gromke, J.
  • Astronomical Telescopes & Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.317367

On the variation of the initial mass function
journal, April 2001


A General Theory of Turbulence‐regulated Star Formation, from Spirals to Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies
journal, September 2005

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 630, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/431734

The Relationship between Molecular Gas Tracers and Kennicutt‐Schmidt Laws
journal, November 2007

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 669, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/521642

Molecular gas and star Formation in Nearby disk Galaxies
journal, June 2013


Detection of iron kα Emission from a Complete Sample of Submillimeter Galaxies
journal, August 2012

  • Lindner, Robert R.; Baker, Andrew J.; Beelen, Alexandre
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 757, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/3

The far-infrared/radio correlation and radio spectral index of galaxies in the SFR– M plane up to z ~2
journal, December 2014


CALIBRATING EXTINCTION-FREE STAR FORMATION RATE DIAGNOSTICS WITH 33 GHz FREE-FREE EMISSION IN NGC 6946
journal, August 2011


The Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation relation at z∼ 2: The KS law at high redshift
journal, December 2010

  • Narayanan, Desika; Cox, Thomas J.; Hayward, Christopher C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 412, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17903.x

Molecular Star Formation Rate Indicators in Galaxies
journal, September 2008

  • Narayanan, Desika; Cox, Thomas J.; Shirley, Yancy
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 684, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/588720

Warm, Dense Molecular Gas in the ISM of Starbursts, LIRGs, and ULIRGs
journal, September 2005

  • Narayanan, Desika; Groppi, Christopher E.; Kulesa, Craig A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 630, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/431171

A theory for the excitation of CO in star-forming galaxies
journal, June 2014

  • Narayanan, Desika; Krumholz, Mark R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu834

A general model for the CO-H2 conversion factor in galaxies with applications to the star formation law: The effect of galactic environment on XCO
journal, March 2012

  • Narayanan, Desika; Krumholz, Mark R.; Ostriker, Eve C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 421, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20536.x

Star Formation in AEGIS Field Galaxies since z  = 1.1: The Dominance of Gradually Declining Star Formation, and the Main Sequence of Star-forming Galaxies
journal, April 2007

  • Noeske, K. G.; Weiner, B. J.; Faber, S. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 660, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/517926

Maximally Star-Forming Galactic Disks. i. Starburst Regulation via Feedback-Driven Turbulence
journal, March 2011


Detailed Decomposition of Galaxy Images. ii. Beyond Axisymmetric Models
journal, April 2010


[O iii]/[N ii] as an abundance indicator at high redshift
journal, March 2004


[C II] AND 12 CO(1-0) EMISSION MAPS IN HLSJ091828.6+514223: A STRONGLY LENSED INTERACTING SYSTEM AT z = 5.24
journal, February 2014


HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: DYNAMICS OF TWO STRONGLY LENSED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES NEAR REDSHIFT z = 2
journal, April 2014

  • Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Allam, Sahar
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 787, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/787/1/8

TOTAL MOLECULAR GAS MASSES OF z ∼ 3 LYMAN- BREAK GALAXIES: CO( J = 1 → 0) EMISSION IN MS 1512–cB58 AND THE COSMIC EYE
journal, November 2010

  • Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Walter, Fabian
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 724, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/724/2/L153

A Molecular Einstein Ring at z = 4.12: Imaging the Dynamics of a Quasar Host Galaxy Through a Cosmic Lens
journal, October 2008

  • Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Brewer, Brendon J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/591434

THE LESSER ROLE OF STARBURSTS IN STAR FORMATION AT z = 2
journal, September 2011


Gas-Phase Oxygen Gradients in Strongly Interacting Galaxies. i. Early-Stage Interactions
journal, October 2010


ALMA imaging of SDP.81 – I. A pixelated reconstruction of the far-infrared continuum emission
journal, May 2015

  • Rybak, M.; McKean, J. P.; Vegetti, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 451, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slv058

VALIDATION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM MODEL FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION TO z ∼ 3 THROUGH MOLECULAR GAS AND DUST OBSERVATIONS OF LENSED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
journal, October 2013

  • Saintonge, Amélie; Lutz, Dieter; Genzel, Reinhard
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 778, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/778/1/2

Molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies
journal, March 1991

  • Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Soifer, B. T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 370
  • DOI: 10.1086/169800

The MOSDEF Survey: A Stellar Mass–SFR–Metallicity Relation Exists at z ∼ 2.3
journal, May 2018

  • Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 858, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabcbd

The dust content of high- z submillimeter galaxies revealed by Herschel
journal, July 2010


THE CONTRIBUTION OF STARBURSTS AND NORMAL GALAXIES TO INFRARED LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z < 2
journal, February 2012


The Rate of Star Formation.
journal, January 1959

  • Schmidt, Maarten
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 129
  • DOI: 10.1086/146614

A Molecular star Formation law in the Atomic-Gas-Dominated Regime in Nearby Galaxies
journal, June 2011


THE EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM MASS PROBED BY DUST EMISSION: ALMA OBSERVATIONS AT z = 0.3-2
journal, February 2014


ISM MASSES AND THE STAR FORMATION LAW AT Z = 1 TO 6: ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF DUST CONTINUUM IN 145 GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS SURVEY FIELD
journal, March 2016


Strong biases in infrared-selected gravitational lenses: Strong biases in infrared-selected gravitational lenses
journal, May 2012


Testing star formation laws in a starburst galaxy at redshift 3 resolved with ALMA
journal, April 2018

  • Sharda, P.; Federrath, C.; da Cunha, E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 477, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty886

Very Large Array Mapping of the Co(1-0) line in smm J14011+0252
journal, February 2013

  • Sharon, Chelsea E.; Baker, Andrew J.; Harris, Andrew I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 765, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/6

A TOTAL MOLECULAR GAS MASS CENSUS IN Z ∼ 2–3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOW- J CO EXCITATION PROBES OF GALAXIES’ EVOLUTIONARY STATES
journal, August 2016

  • Sharon, Chelsea E.; Riechers, Dominik A.; Hodge, Jacqueline
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 827, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/827/1/18

The nature of faint submillimetre-selected galaxies
journal, March 2002


Star-formation rates, molecular clouds, and the origin of the far-infrared luminosity of isolated and interacting galaxies
journal, November 1988

  • Solomon, P. M.; Sage, L. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 334
  • DOI: 10.1086/166865

A HIGHLY CONSISTENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE STAR-FORMING “MAIN SEQUENCE” FROM z ∼ 0-6
journal, September 2014

  • Speagle, J. S.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Capak, P. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 214, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/214/2/15

Alma Imaging and Gravitational lens Models of South pole Telescope—Selected Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies at high Redshifts
journal, July 2016


Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Population of Normal Star-forming Galaxies at Redshifts z > 3
journal, May 1996


A Bayesian analysis of regularized source inversions in gravitational lensing
journal, September 2006


PHIBSS: Unified Scaling Relations of Gas Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions
journal, February 2018


PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z ∼ 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
journal, April 2013


The gravitationally unstable gas disk of a starburst galaxy 12 billion years ago
journal, August 2018


Statistical and systematic uncertainties in pixel-based source reconstruction algorithms for gravitational lensing
journal, September 2014

  • Tagore, Amitpal S.; Keeton, Charles R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 445, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1671

Star Formation Rates in Disk Galaxies and Circumnuclear Starbursts from Cloud Collisions
journal, June 2000

  • Tan, Jonathan C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 536, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308905

VLA imaging of 12CO J = 1−0 and free-free emission in lensed submillimetre galaxies: Ionized and molecular gas in lensed SMGs
journal, August 2012


3D-HST+CANDELS: THE EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY SIZE-MASS DISTRIBUTION SINCE z = 3
journal, May 2014


Bayesian strong gravitational-lens modelling on adaptive grids: objective detection of mass substructure in Galaxies
journal, January 2009


A MOLECULAR LINE SCAN IN THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD NORTH: CONSTRAINTS ON THE CO LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND THE COSMIC H 2 DENSITY
journal, January 2014


The Relationship Between Molecular gas and star Formation in Low-Mass e/s0 Galaxies
journal, November 2010


THE KMOS 3D SURVEY: DESIGN, FIRST RESULTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY KINEMATICS FROM 0.7 ⩽ z ⩽ 2.7
journal, January 2015


Integral Field Spectroscopy of a Candidate Disk Galaxy at z ∼ 1.5 Using Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics
journal, March 2007

  • Wright, S. A.; Larkin, J. E.; Barczys, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 658, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/511632

A CONSISTENT STUDY OF METALLICITY EVOLUTION AT 0.8 < z < 2.6
journal, June 2014

  • Wuyts, Eva; Kurk, Jaron; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 789, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/789/2/L40

THE EVOLUTION OF METALLICITY AND METALLICITY GRADIENTS FROM z = 2.7 TO 0.6 WITH KMOS 3D
journal, August 2016


GALAXY STRUCTURE AND MODE OF STAR FORMATION IN THE SFR-MASS PLANE FROM z ∼ 2.5 TO z ∼ 0.1
journal, November 2011

  • Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; van der Wel, Arjen
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 742, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/742/2/96

CO Molecular Gas in Infrared‐luminous Galaxies
journal, May 2003

  • Yao, Lihong; Seaquist, E. R.; Kuno, Nario
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 588, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/374333

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Technical Summary
journal, September 2000

  • York, Donald G.; Adelman, J.; Anderson, Jr., John E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/301513

CO observations of infrared bright galaxies - The efficiency of star formation
journal, May 1986

  • Young, J. S.; Schloerb, F. P.; Kenney, J. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 304
  • DOI: 10.1086/164179