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Title: Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg 2 SPTpol survey

Abstract

We study the polarization properties of extragalactic sources at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPTpol 500 deg 2 survey. We estimate the polarized power by stacking maps at known source positions, and correct for noise bias by subtracting the mean polarized power at random positions in the maps. We show that the method is unbiased using a set of simulated maps with similar noise properties to the real SPTpol maps. We find a flux-weighted mean-squared polarization fraction $$\langle$$p 2$$\rangle$$ = [8.9 ± 1.1] × 10 -4 at 95 GHz and [6.9 ± 1.1] × 10 -4 at 150 GHz for the full sample. This is consistent with the values obtained for a subsample of active galactic nuclei. For dusty sources, we find 95 percent upper limits of $$\langle$$p 2$$\rangle$$ 95 < 16.9 × 10 -3 and $$\langle$$p 2$$\rangle$$ 150 < 2.6 × 10 -3. We find no evidence that the polarization fraction depends on the source flux or observing frequency. The 1σ upper limit on measured mean-squared polarization fraction at 150 GHz implies that extragalactic foregrounds will be subdominant to the CMB E and B mode polarization power spectra out to at least ℓ ≲ 5700 (ℓ ≲ 4700) and ℓ ≲ 5300 (ℓ ≲ 3600), respectively, at 95 (150) GHz.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [6];  [8];  [4];  [2];  [8];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [10];  [12];  [13] more »;  [14];  [15];  [5];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [15];  [7];  [8];  [6];  [19];  [7];  [10];  [10];  [7];  [6];  [20];  [21];  [13];  [22];  [10];  [10];  [23];  [24];  [10];  [10];  [25];  [18];  [5];  [26];  [6];  [18];  [27];  [12];  [2];  [28];  [29];  [9];  [15];  [30];  [31];  [10];  [32];  [33];  [34];  [35];  [36];  [37];  [38];  [39];  [5];  [27];  [40];  [41];  [10];  [27];  [5] « less
  1. Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia)
  2. Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia)
  3. Cardiff Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom)
  4. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  5. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  6. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  9. Univ. of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa)
  10. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  11. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  13. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  14. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  15. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  16. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States)
  17. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany)
  18. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
  19. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  20. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  21. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  22. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  23. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  24. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  25. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)
  26. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  27. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  28. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
  29. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)
  30. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); School of the Art Inst. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  31. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  32. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Three-Speed Logic, Inc., Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)
  33. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL)
  34. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  35. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  36. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  37. Cardiff Univ. Cardiff (United Kingdom)
  38. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  39. Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States)
  40. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  41. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
SPT
OSTI Identifier:
1556975
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1907.02156; FERMILAB-PUB-19-386-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; oai:inspirehep.net:1742660
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 490; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; polarization; galaxies: active; cosmology: observations

Citation Formats

Gupta, N., Reichardt, C. L., Ade, P. A. R., Anderson, A. J., Archipley, M., Austermann, J. E., Avva, J. S., Beall, J. A., Bender, A. N., Benson, B. A., Bianchini, F., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiang, H. C., Citron, R., Moran, C. Corbett, Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W., Feng, C., Gallicchio, J., George, E. M., Gilbert, A., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N., Henning, J. W., Hilton, G. C., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Huang, N., Hubmayr, J., Irwin, K. D., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Li, D., Lowitz, A., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Montgomery, J., Nadolski, A., Natoli, T., Nibarger, J. P., Noble, G. I., Novosad, V., Padin, S., Patil, S., Pryke, C., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Sievers, C., Smecher, G., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Switzer, E. R., Tucker, C., Vanderlinde, K., Veach, T., Vieira, J. D., Wang, G., Whitehorn, N., Williamson, R., Wu, W. L. K., Yefremenko, V., and Zhang, L. Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2905.
Gupta, N., Reichardt, C. L., Ade, P. A. R., Anderson, A. J., Archipley, M., Austermann, J. E., Avva, J. S., Beall, J. A., Bender, A. N., Benson, B. A., Bianchini, F., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiang, H. C., Citron, R., Moran, C. Corbett, Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W., Feng, C., Gallicchio, J., George, E. M., Gilbert, A., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N., Henning, J. W., Hilton, G. C., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Huang, N., Hubmayr, J., Irwin, K. D., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Li, D., Lowitz, A., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Montgomery, J., Nadolski, A., Natoli, T., Nibarger, J. P., Noble, G. I., Novosad, V., Padin, S., Patil, S., Pryke, C., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Sievers, C., Smecher, G., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Switzer, E. R., Tucker, C., Vanderlinde, K., Veach, T., Vieira, J. D., Wang, G., Whitehorn, N., Williamson, R., Wu, W. L. K., Yefremenko, V., & Zhang, L. Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2905.
Gupta, N., Reichardt, C. L., Ade, P. A. R., Anderson, A. J., Archipley, M., Austermann, J. E., Avva, J. S., Beall, J. A., Bender, A. N., Benson, B. A., Bianchini, F., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiang, H. C., Citron, R., Moran, C. Corbett, Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W., Feng, C., Gallicchio, J., George, E. M., Gilbert, A., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N., Henning, J. W., Hilton, G. C., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Huang, N., Hubmayr, J., Irwin, K. D., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Li, D., Lowitz, A., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Montgomery, J., Nadolski, A., Natoli, T., Nibarger, J. P., Noble, G. I., Novosad, V., Padin, S., Patil, S., Pryke, C., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Sievers, C., Smecher, G., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Switzer, E. R., Tucker, C., Vanderlinde, K., Veach, T., Vieira, J. D., Wang, G., Whitehorn, N., Williamson, R., Wu, W. L. K., Yefremenko, V., and Zhang, L. Mon . "Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz2905.
@article{osti_1556975,
title = {Fractional polarization of extragalactic sources in the 500 deg2 SPTpol survey},
author = {Gupta, N. and Reichardt, C. L. and Ade, P. A. R. and Anderson, A. J. and Archipley, M. and Austermann, J. E. and Avva, J. S. and Beall, J. A. and Bender, A. N. and Benson, B. A. and Bianchini, F. and Bleem, L. E. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chang, C. L. and Chiang, H. C. and Citron, R. and Moran, C. Corbett and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and de Haan, T. and Dobbs, M. A. and Everett, W. and Feng, C. and Gallicchio, J. and George, E. M. and Gilbert, A. and Halverson, N. W. and Harrington, N. and Henning, J. W. and Hilton, G. C. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hou, Z. and Hrubes, J. D. and Huang, N. and Hubmayr, J. and Irwin, K. D. and Knox, L. and Lee, A. T. and Li, D. and Lowitz, A. and Luong-Van, D. and Marrone, D. P. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Mocanu, L. M. and Mohr, J. J. and Montgomery, J. and Nadolski, A. and Natoli, T. and Nibarger, J. P. and Noble, G. I. and Novosad, V. and Padin, S. and Patil, S. and Pryke, C. and Ruhl, J. E. and Saliwanchik, B. R. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Shirokoff, E. and Sievers, C. and Smecher, G. and Staniszewski, Z. and Stark, A. A. and Story, K. T. and Switzer, E. R. and Tucker, C. and Vanderlinde, K. and Veach, T. and Vieira, J. D. and Wang, G. and Whitehorn, N. and Williamson, R. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yefremenko, V. and Zhang, L.},
abstractNote = {We study the polarization properties of extragalactic sources at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPTpol 500 deg2 survey. We estimate the polarized power by stacking maps at known source positions, and correct for noise bias by subtracting the mean polarized power at random positions in the maps. We show that the method is unbiased using a set of simulated maps with similar noise properties to the real SPTpol maps. We find a flux-weighted mean-squared polarization fraction $\langle$p2$\rangle$ = [8.9 ± 1.1] × 10-4 at 95 GHz and [6.9 ± 1.1] × 10-4 at 150 GHz for the full sample. This is consistent with the values obtained for a subsample of active galactic nuclei. For dusty sources, we find 95 percent upper limits of $\langle$p2$\rangle$95 < 16.9 × 10-3 and $\langle$p2$\rangle$150 < 2.6 × 10-3. We find no evidence that the polarization fraction depends on the source flux or observing frequency. The 1σ upper limit on measured mean-squared polarization fraction at 150 GHz implies that extragalactic foregrounds will be subdominant to the CMB E and B mode polarization power spectra out to at least ℓ ≲ 5700 (ℓ ≲ 4700) and ℓ ≲ 5300 (ℓ ≲ 3600), respectively, at 95 (150) GHz.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz2905},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 490,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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