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Title: The total mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud from its perturbation on the Orphan stream

Abstract

In a companion paper by Koposov et al., RR Lyrae from Gaia Data Release 2 are used to demonstrate that stars in the Orphan stream have velocity vectors significantly misaligned with the stream track, suggesting that it has received a large gravitational perturbation from a satellite of the Milky Way. We argue that such a mismatch cannot arise due to any realistic static Milky Way potential and then explore the perturbative effects of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We find that the LMC can produce precisely, the observed motion-track mismatch and we therefore use the Orphan stream to measure the mass of the Cloud. We simultaneously fit the Milky Way and LMC potentials and infer that a total LMC mass of |$$1.38^{+0.27}_{-0.24} \times 10^{11}\, \rm {M_\odot}$$| is required to bend the Orphan stream, showing for the first time that the LMC has a large and measurable effect on structures orbiting the Milky Way. This has far-reaching consequences for any technique which assumes that tracers are orbiting a static Milky Way. Furthermore, we measure the Milky Way mass within 50 kpc to be |$$3.80^{+0.14}_{-0.11}\times 10^{11} \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$$|. Finally, we use these results to predict that, due to the reflex motion of the Milky Way in response to the LMC, the outskirts of the Milky Way’s stellar halo should exhibit a bulk, upwards motion.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [14]
  1. Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
  2. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK; Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 5th Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA
  3. Department of Physics and Astornomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
  4. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK; Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
  5. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA; Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  6. IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
  7. Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
  8. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  9. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  10. Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway Boulevard, Austin, TX 78712, USA
  11. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada
  12. Departamento de Astronomía, Instituto de Física, Universidad de la República, Iguá 4225, CP 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay
  13. Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
  14. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
  15. Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
The OATs: Orphan Aspen Treasury Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1556967
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1812.08192; FERMILAB-PUB-18-780-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; 1746420
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 487; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Erkal, D., Belokurov, V., Laporte, C. F. P., Koposov, S. E., Li, T. S., Grillmair, C. J., Kallivayalil, N., Price-Whelan, A. M., Evans, N. W., Hawkins, K., Hendel, D., Mateu, C., Navarro, J. F., del Pino, A., Slater, C. T., and Sohn, S. T. The total mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud from its perturbation on the Orphan stream. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1371.
Erkal, D., Belokurov, V., Laporte, C. F. P., Koposov, S. E., Li, T. S., Grillmair, C. J., Kallivayalil, N., Price-Whelan, A. M., Evans, N. W., Hawkins, K., Hendel, D., Mateu, C., Navarro, J. F., del Pino, A., Slater, C. T., & Sohn, S. T. The total mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud from its perturbation on the Orphan stream. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1371.
Erkal, D., Belokurov, V., Laporte, C. F. P., Koposov, S. E., Li, T. S., Grillmair, C. J., Kallivayalil, N., Price-Whelan, A. M., Evans, N. W., Hawkins, K., Hendel, D., Mateu, C., Navarro, J. F., del Pino, A., Slater, C. T., and Sohn, S. T. Fri . "The total mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud from its perturbation on the Orphan stream". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1371.
@article{osti_1556967,
title = {The total mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud from its perturbation on the Orphan stream},
author = {Erkal, D. and Belokurov, V. and Laporte, C. F. P. and Koposov, S. E. and Li, T. S. and Grillmair, C. J. and Kallivayalil, N. and Price-Whelan, A. M. and Evans, N. W. and Hawkins, K. and Hendel, D. and Mateu, C. and Navarro, J. F. and del Pino, A. and Slater, C. T. and Sohn, S. T.},
abstractNote = {In a companion paper by Koposov et al., RR Lyrae from Gaia Data Release 2 are used to demonstrate that stars in the Orphan stream have velocity vectors significantly misaligned with the stream track, suggesting that it has received a large gravitational perturbation from a satellite of the Milky Way. We argue that such a mismatch cannot arise due to any realistic static Milky Way potential and then explore the perturbative effects of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We find that the LMC can produce precisely, the observed motion-track mismatch and we therefore use the Orphan stream to measure the mass of the Cloud. We simultaneously fit the Milky Way and LMC potentials and infer that a total LMC mass of |$1.38^{+0.27}_{-0.24} \times 10^{11}\, \rm {M_\odot}$| is required to bend the Orphan stream, showing for the first time that the LMC has a large and measurable effect on structures orbiting the Milky Way. This has far-reaching consequences for any technique which assumes that tracers are orbiting a static Milky Way. Furthermore, we measure the Milky Way mass within 50 kpc to be |$3.80^{+0.14}_{-0.11}\times 10^{11} \, \mathrm{M}_\odot$|. Finally, we use these results to predict that, due to the reflex motion of the Milky Way in response to the LMC, the outskirts of the Milky Way’s stellar halo should exhibit a bulk, upwards motion.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1371},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 487,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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The Orbit of the Orphan Stream
journal, February 2010

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  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 711, Issue 1
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THIRD-EPOCH MAGELLANIC CLOUD PROPER MOTIONS. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE /WFC3 DATA AND ORBIT IMPLICATIONS
journal, February 2013

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A New Look at the Kinematics of Neutral Hydrogen in the Small Magellanic Cloud
journal, March 2004

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The role of dwarf galaxy interactions in shaping the Magellanic System and implications for Magellanic Irregulars: The Magellanic System
journal, February 2012

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The Sloan lens acs Survey. x. Stellar, Dynamical, and Total mass Correlations of Massive Early-Type Galaxies
journal, November 2010


Detection of the gravitational redshift in the orbit of the star S2 near the Galactic centre massive black hole
journal, July 2018


Spectroscopy of giants in LMC clusters. II - Kinematics of the cluster sample
journal, February 1992

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galpy: A python LIBRARY FOR GALACTIC DYNAMICS
journal, February 2015


A sharper view of Pal 5's tails: discovery of stream perturbations with a novel non-parametric technique
journal, May 2017

  • Erkal, Denis; Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, Vasily
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 470, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx1208

A timing constraint on the (total) mass of the Large Magellanic Cloud
journal, November 2015

  • Peñarrubia, Jorge; Gómez, Facundo A.; Besla, Gurtina
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 456, Issue 1
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Globular Cluster Streams as Galactic High-Precision Scales—The Poster Child Palomar 5
journal, April 2015

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The Clouds are breaking: tracing the Magellanic system with Gaia DR1 Mira variables
journal, February 2017

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A fully cosmological model of a Monoceros-like ring
journal, December 2015

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An Orphan in the “Field of Streams”
journal, March 2007

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And yet it Moves: the Dangers of Artificially Fixing the Milky way Center of mass in the Presence of a Massive Large Magellanic Cloud
journal, April 2015

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STREAMFINDER – I. A new algorithm for detecting stellar streams
journal, April 2018

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Off the Beaten Path: Gaia Reveals GD-1 Stars outside of the Main Stream
journal, August 2018


Stray, swing and scatter: angular momentum evolution of orbits and streams in aspherical potentials
journal, June 2016

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The Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy: a Model for Evolution in a Triaxial Milky way halo
journal, April 2010


Ursa Major: A Missing Low-Mass CDM Halo?
journal, August 2005

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A Two Micron All Sky Survey View of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy. III. Constraints on the Flattening of the Galactic Halo
journal, February 2005

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What's up in the Milky Way? The orientation of the disc relative to the triaxial halo
journal, July 2013

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Great Circle Tidal Streams: Evidence for a Nearly Spherical Massive Dark Halo around the Milky Way
journal, April 2001

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Proper motions and dynamics of the Milky Way globular cluster system from Gaia DR2
journal, January 2019

  • Vasiliev, Eugene
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Tidal Streams as Probes of the Galactic Potential
journal, February 1999

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Abundance matching with the mean star formation rate: there is no missing satellites problem in the Milky Way above M200 ∼ 109 M⊙
    journal, June 2019

    • Read, J. I.; Erkal, D.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1320

    The Spur and the Gap in GD-1: Dynamical Evidence for a Dark Substructure in the Milky Way Halo
    journal, July 2019

    • Bonaca, Ana; Hogg, David W.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2873