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Title: A Decade of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Fermi -LAT: The Second GRB Catalog

Abstract

The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi spacecraft routinely observes high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present the second catalog of LAT-detected GRBs, covering the first 10 yr of operations, from 2008 to 2018 August 4. A total of 186 GRBs are found; of these, 91 show emission in the range 30–100 MeV (17 of which are seen only in this band) and 169 are detected above 100 MeV. Most of these sources were discovered by other instruments ( Fermi/GBM, Swift/BAT, AGILE, INTEGRAL) or reported by the Interplanetary Network (IPN); the LAT has independently triggered on four GRBs. This catalog presents the results for all 186 GRBs. We study onset, duration, and temporal properties of each GRB, as well as spectral characteristics in the 100 MeV–100 GeV energy range. Particular attention is given to the photons with the highest energy. Compared with the first LAT GRB catalog, our rate of detection is significantly improved. The results generally confirm the main findings of the first catalog: the LAT primarily detects the brightest GBM bursts, and the high-energy emission shows delayed onset as well as longer duration. Yet, here we find delays exceeding 1 ks and several GRBs withmore » durations over 10 ks. Furthermore, the larger number of LAT detections shows that these GRBs not only cover the high-fluence range of GBM-detected GRBs but also sample lower fluences. In addition, the greater number of detected GRBs with redshift estimates allows us to study their properties in both the observer and rest frames. Comparison of the observational results with theoretical predictions demonstrates that no model is currently able to explain all results, highlighting the role of LAT observations in driving theoretical models.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica; Centre National d'Études Spatiales
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi-LAT collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1547073
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 878; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; gamma-ray burst: general; methods: data analysis

Citation Formats

Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bonnell, J., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Cheung, C. C., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Costantin, D., Crnogorcevic, M., Cutini, S., Dainotti, M., D’Ammando, F., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Desai, A., Desiante, R., Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Dirirsa, F. Fana, Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., Mereu, I., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poolakkil, S., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ryde, F., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, M., Tak, D., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Valverde, J., Veres, P., Vianello, G., von Kienlin, A., Wood, K., Yassine, M., Zhu, S., and Zimmer, S. A Decade of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Fermi -LAT: The Second GRB Catalog. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1d4e.
Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bonnell, J., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Cheung, C. C., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Costantin, D., Crnogorcevic, M., Cutini, S., Dainotti, M., D’Ammando, F., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Desai, A., Desiante, R., Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Dirirsa, F. Fana, Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., Mereu, I., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poolakkil, S., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ryde, F., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, M., Tak, D., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Valverde, J., Veres, P., Vianello, G., von Kienlin, A., Wood, K., Yassine, M., Zhu, S., & Zimmer, S. A Decade of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Fermi -LAT: The Second GRB Catalog. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1d4e.
Ajello, M., Arimoto, M., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bhat, P. N., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bonino, R., Bonnell, J., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Chen, S., Cheung, C. C., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Costantin, D., Crnogorcevic, M., Cutini, S., Dainotti, M., D’Ammando, F., Torre Luque, P. de la, Palma, F. de, Desai, A., Desiante, R., Lalla, N. Di, Venere, L. Di, Dirirsa, F. Fana, Fegan, S. J., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Grove, J. E., Guiriec, S., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Horan, D., Jóhannesson, G., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Martí-Devesa, G., Mazziotta, M. N., Mereu, I., Meyer, M., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Moretti, E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohno, M., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Palatiello, M., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Poolakkil, S., Poon, H., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Racusin, J. L., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ryde, F., Serini, D., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Sonbas, E., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Takahashi, M., Tak, D., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Valverde, J., Veres, P., Vianello, G., von Kienlin, A., Wood, K., Yassine, M., Zhu, S., and Zimmer, S. Thu . "A Decade of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Fermi -LAT: The Second GRB Catalog". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1d4e.
@article{osti_1547073,
title = {A Decade of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Fermi -LAT: The Second GRB Catalog},
author = {Ajello, M. and Arimoto, M. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Bhat, P. N. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bonino, R. and Bonnell, J. and Bottacini, E. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Chen, S. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Costantin, D. and Crnogorcevic, M. and Cutini, S. and Dainotti, M. and D’Ammando, F. and Torre Luque, P. de la and Palma, F. de and Desai, A. and Desiante, R. and Lalla, N. Di and Venere, L. Di and Dirirsa, F. Fana and Fegan, S. J. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Green, D. and Grenier, I. A. and Grove, J. E. and Guiriec, S. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. W. and Horan, D. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Maldera, S. and Manfreda, A. and Martí-Devesa, G. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Mereu, I. and Meyer, M. and Michelson, P. F. and Mirabal, N. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Moretti, E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Ohno, M. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Palatiello, M. and Paliya, V. S. and Paneque, D. and Persic, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Piron, F. and Poolakkil, S. and Poon, H. and Porter, T. A. and Principe, G. and Racusin, J. L. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ryde, F. and Serini, D. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Sonbas, E. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, M. and Tak, D. and Thayer, J. B. and Torres, D. F. and Troja, E. and Valverde, J. and Veres, P. and Vianello, G. and von Kienlin, A. and Wood, K. and Yassine, M. and Zhu, S. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi spacecraft routinely observes high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present the second catalog of LAT-detected GRBs, covering the first 10 yr of operations, from 2008 to 2018 August 4. A total of 186 GRBs are found; of these, 91 show emission in the range 30–100 MeV (17 of which are seen only in this band) and 169 are detected above 100 MeV. Most of these sources were discovered by other instruments (Fermi/GBM, Swift/BAT, AGILE, INTEGRAL) or reported by the Interplanetary Network (IPN); the LAT has independently triggered on four GRBs. This catalog presents the results for all 186 GRBs. We study onset, duration, and temporal properties of each GRB, as well as spectral characteristics in the 100 MeV–100 GeV energy range. Particular attention is given to the photons with the highest energy. Compared with the first LAT GRB catalog, our rate of detection is significantly improved. The results generally confirm the main findings of the first catalog: the LAT primarily detects the brightest GBM bursts, and the high-energy emission shows delayed onset as well as longer duration. Yet, here we find delays exceeding 1 ks and several GRBs with durations over 10 ks. Furthermore, the larger number of LAT detections shows that these GRBs not only cover the high-fluence range of GBM-detected GRBs but also sample lower fluences. In addition, the greater number of detected GRBs with redshift estimates allows us to study their properties in both the observer and rest frames. Comparison of the observational results with theoretical predictions demonstrates that no model is currently able to explain all results, highlighting the role of LAT observations in driving theoretical models.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab1d4e},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 878,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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Bounds on Spectral Dispersion from Fermi-Detected Gamma Ray Bursts
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Planck 2015 results : XIII. Cosmological parameters
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The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks
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A Leptonic–Hadronic Model for the Afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst 090510
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An Up-Scattered Cocoon Emission Model of Gamma-Ray Burst High-Energy lags
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Constraints on Lorentz invariance violation from Fermi -Large Area Telescope observations of gamma-ray bursts
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The Bright and the Slow—GRBs 100724B and 160509A with High-energy Cutoffs at ≲100 MeV
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Searching for High-energy Gamma-ray Counterparts to Gravitational-wave Sources with Fermi -LAT: A Needle in a Haystack
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The INTEGRAL mission
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