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Title: Visualization of an axion insulating state at the transition between 2 chiral quantum anomalous Hall states

Abstract

Quantum-relativistic materials often host electronic phenomena with exotic spatial distributions. In particular, quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulators feature topological boundary currents whose chirality is determined by the magnetization orientation. However, understanding the microscopic nature of edge vs. bulk currents has remained a challenge due to the emergence of multidomain states at the phase transitions. Here we use microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) to directly image chiral edge currents and phase transitions in a magnetic topological insulator. Our images reveal a dramatic change in the edge state structure and an unexpected microwave response at the topological phase transition between the Chern number N = 1 and N = - 1 states, consistent with the emergence of an insulating N = 0 state. The magnetic transition width is independent of film thickness, but the transition pattern is distinct in differently initiated field sweeps. This behavior suggests that the N = 0 state has 2 surface states with Hall conductivities of 1 2 e 2 / h but with opposite signs.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [6]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
  4. RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, Saitama (Japan)
  5. Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany)
  6. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science (SIMES)
  7. Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, Saitama (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1546797
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; GBMF4546; DMR-1305731
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 29; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Allen, Monica, Cui, Yongtao, Yue Ma, Eric, Mogi, Masataka, Kawamura, Minoru, Fulga, Ion Cosma, Goldhaber-Gordon, David, Tokura, Yoshinori, and Shen, Zhi-Xun. Visualization of an axion insulating state at the transition between 2 chiral quantum anomalous Hall states. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1818255116.
Allen, Monica, Cui, Yongtao, Yue Ma, Eric, Mogi, Masataka, Kawamura, Minoru, Fulga, Ion Cosma, Goldhaber-Gordon, David, Tokura, Yoshinori, & Shen, Zhi-Xun. Visualization of an axion insulating state at the transition between 2 chiral quantum anomalous Hall states. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1818255116.
Allen, Monica, Cui, Yongtao, Yue Ma, Eric, Mogi, Masataka, Kawamura, Minoru, Fulga, Ion Cosma, Goldhaber-Gordon, David, Tokura, Yoshinori, and Shen, Zhi-Xun. Tue . "Visualization of an axion insulating state at the transition between 2 chiral quantum anomalous Hall states". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1818255116. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1546797.
@article{osti_1546797,
title = {Visualization of an axion insulating state at the transition between 2 chiral quantum anomalous Hall states},
author = {Allen, Monica and Cui, Yongtao and Yue Ma, Eric and Mogi, Masataka and Kawamura, Minoru and Fulga, Ion Cosma and Goldhaber-Gordon, David and Tokura, Yoshinori and Shen, Zhi-Xun},
abstractNote = {Quantum-relativistic materials often host electronic phenomena with exotic spatial distributions. In particular, quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulators feature topological boundary currents whose chirality is determined by the magnetization orientation. However, understanding the microscopic nature of edge vs. bulk currents has remained a challenge due to the emergence of multidomain states at the phase transitions. Here we use microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) to directly image chiral edge currents and phase transitions in a magnetic topological insulator. Our images reveal a dramatic change in the edge state structure and an unexpected microwave response at the topological phase transition between the Chern number N=1 and N=-1 states, consistent with the emergence of an insulating N=0 state. The magnetic transition width is independent of film thickness, but the transition pattern is distinct in differently initiated field sweeps. This behavior suggests that the N=0 state has 2 surface states with Hall conductivities of12e2/h but with opposite signs.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1818255116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 29,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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Cited by: 3 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Experimental Observation of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator
journal, March 2013


Dirac-fermion-mediated ferromagnetism in a topological insulator
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Scaling of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect as an Indicator of Axion Electrodynamics
journal, June 2017


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Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
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The Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
journal, March 2016


Universal scaling of the quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition
journal, February 2014


Nobel Lecture: Topological quantum matter
journal, October 2017


Massive Dirac Fermion on the Surface of a Magnetically Doped Topological Insulator
journal, August 2010


Quantized topological magnetoelectric effect of the zero-plateau quantum anomalous Hall state
journal, August 2015


Topological magnetoelectric effects in thin films of topological insulators
journal, August 2015


A magnetic heterostructure of topological insulators as a candidate for an axion insulator
journal, February 2017

  • Mogi, M.; Kawamura, M.; Yoshimi, R.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4855

Tailoring tricolor structure of magnetic topological insulator for robust axion insulator
journal, October 2017

  • Mogi, Masataka; Kawamura, Minoru; Tsukazaki, Atsushi
  • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao1669

Realization of the Axion Insulator State in Quantum Anomalous Hall Sandwich Heterostructures
journal, January 2018


Visualization of superparamagnetic dynamics in magnetic topological insulators
journal, November 2015

  • Lachman, Ella O.; Young, Andrea F.; Richardella, Anthony
  • Science Advances, Vol. 1, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500740

Magnetic modulation doping in topological insulators toward higher-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect
journal, November 2015

  • Mogi, M.; Yoshimi, R.; Tsukazaki, A.
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  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4935075

Cryogenic microwave imaging of metal–insulator transition in doped silicon
journal, March 2011

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  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 82, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3554438

Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy
journal, June 2016

  • Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954156

Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Cr x (Bi 0.1 Sb 0.9 ) 2-x Te 3
journal, January 2015

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  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 5
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Inducing a Magnetic Monopole with Topological Surface States
journal, February 2009


Edge transport in the trivial phase of InAs/GaSb
journal, July 2016


Chiral Majorana fermion modes in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator–superconductor structure
journal, July 2017


Chiral topological superconductor and half-integer conductance plateau from quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition
journal, August 2015


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    High-precision realization of robust quantum anomalous Hall state in a hard ferromagnetic topological insulator
    journal, March 2015

    • Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Weiwei; Kim, Duk Y.
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4204

    A magnetic heterostructure of topological insulators as a candidate for an axion insulator
    journal, February 2017

    • Mogi, M.; Kawamura, M.; Yoshimi, R.
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4855

    Dirac-fermion-mediated ferromagnetism in a topological insulator
    journal, August 2012

    • Checkelsky, Joseph G.; Ye, Jianting; Onose, Yoshinori
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 8, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2388

    Trajectory of the anomalous Hall effect towards the quantized state in a ferromagnetic topological insulator
    journal, August 2014

    • Checkelsky, J. G.; Yoshimi, R.; Tsukazaki, A.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3053

    Cryogenic microwave imaging of metal–insulator transition in doped silicon
    journal, March 2011

    • Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael A.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 82, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3554438

    Magnetic modulation doping in topological insulators toward higher-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect
    journal, November 2015

    • Mogi, M.; Yoshimi, R.; Tsukazaki, A.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4935075

    Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy
    journal, June 2016

    • Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4954156

    Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Cr x (Bi 0.1 Sb 0.9 ) 2-x Te 3
    journal, January 2015

    • Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1424322112

    Edge transport in the trivial phase of InAs/GaSb
    journal, July 2016


    Topological field theory of time-reversal invariant insulators
    journal, November 2008

    • Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor L.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
    • Physical Review B, Vol. 78, Issue 19, Article No. 195424
    • DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.78.195424

    Universal scaling of the quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition
    journal, February 2014


    Chiral topological superconductor and half-integer conductance plateau from quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition
    journal, August 2015


    Quantized topological magnetoelectric effect of the zero-plateau quantum anomalous Hall state
    journal, August 2015


    Topological magnetoelectric effects in thin films of topological insulators
    journal, August 2015


    Scale-Invariant Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators beyond the Two-Dimensional Limit
    journal, September 2014


    Precise Quantization of the Anomalous Hall Effect near Zero Magnetic Field
    journal, May 2015


    Scaling of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect as an Indicator of Axion Electrodynamics
    journal, June 2017


    Realization of the Axion Insulator State in Quantum Anomalous Hall Sandwich Heterostructures
    journal, January 2018


    Nobel Lecture: Topological quantum matter
    journal, October 2017


    Visualization of superparamagnetic dynamics in magnetic topological insulators
    journal, November 2015

    • Lachman, Ella O.; Young, Andrea F.; Richardella, Anthony
    • Science Advances, Vol. 1, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500740

    Large discrete jumps observed in the transition between Chern states in a ferromagnetic topological insulator
    journal, July 2016

    • Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Richardella, Anthony R.
    • Science Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600167

    Tailoring tricolor structure of magnetic topological insulator for robust axion insulator
    journal, October 2017

    • Mogi, Masataka; Kawamura, Minoru; Tsukazaki, Atsushi
    • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao1669

    Inducing a Magnetic Monopole with Topological Surface States
    journal, February 2009


    Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
    journal, June 2010


    Massive Dirac Fermion on the Surface of a Magnetically Doped Topological Insulator
    journal, August 2010


    Experimental Observation of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator
    journal, March 2013


    Chiral Majorana fermion modes in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator–superconductor structure
    journal, July 2017


    The Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
    journal, March 2016