skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs

Abstract

Climate warming is predicted to alter the structure, stability, and functioning of food webs. Yet, despite the importance of soil food webs for energy and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of warming on these food webs—particularly in combination with other global change drivers—are largely unknown. Here, we present results from two complementary field experiments that test the interactive effects of warming with forest canopy disturbance and drought on energy flux in boreal–temperate ecotonal forest soil food webs. The first experiment applied a simultaneous above- and belowground warming treatment (ambient, +1.7 °C, +3.4 °C) to closed-canopy and recently clear-cut forest, simulating common forest disturbance6. The second experiment crossed warming with a summer drought treatment (-40% rainfall) in the clear-cut habitats. We show that warming reduces energy flux to microbes, while forest canopy disturbance and drought facilitates warming-induced increases in energy flux to higher trophic levels and exacerbates the reduction in energy flux to microbes, respectively. Contrary to expectations, we find no change in whole-network resilience to perturbations, but significant losses in ecosystem functioning. Warming thus interacts with forest disturbance and drought, shaping the energetic structure of soil food webs and threatening the provisioning of multiple ecosystem functions in boreal–temperatemore » ecotonal forests.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [4];  [8]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)
  2. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig (German); Leipzig Univ., Leipzig (Germany); Univ. of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)
  3. German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig (German); Leipzig Univ., Leipzig (Germany)
  4. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig (German)
  5. National Inst. of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Inst. of Biological Research
  6. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Western Sydney Univ., Penrith, NSW (Australia)
  7. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD (United States)
  8. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; German Research Foundation (DFG)
OSTI Identifier:
1546788
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-07ER64456; 677232
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Climate Change
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1758-678X
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Schwarz, Benjamin, Barnes, Andrew D., Thakur, Madhav P., Brose, Ulrich, Ciobanu, Marcel, Reich, Peter B., Rich, Roy L., Rosenbaum, Benjamin, Stefanski, Artur, and Eisenhauer, Nico. Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0002-z.
Schwarz, Benjamin, Barnes, Andrew D., Thakur, Madhav P., Brose, Ulrich, Ciobanu, Marcel, Reich, Peter B., Rich, Roy L., Rosenbaum, Benjamin, Stefanski, Artur, & Eisenhauer, Nico. Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs. United States. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0002-z.
Schwarz, Benjamin, Barnes, Andrew D., Thakur, Madhav P., Brose, Ulrich, Ciobanu, Marcel, Reich, Peter B., Rich, Roy L., Rosenbaum, Benjamin, Stefanski, Artur, and Eisenhauer, Nico. Mon . "Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs". United States. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0002-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1546788.
@article{osti_1546788,
title = {Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs},
author = {Schwarz, Benjamin and Barnes, Andrew D. and Thakur, Madhav P. and Brose, Ulrich and Ciobanu, Marcel and Reich, Peter B. and Rich, Roy L. and Rosenbaum, Benjamin and Stefanski, Artur and Eisenhauer, Nico},
abstractNote = {Climate warming is predicted to alter the structure, stability, and functioning of food webs. Yet, despite the importance of soil food webs for energy and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of warming on these food webs—particularly in combination with other global change drivers—are largely unknown. Here, we present results from two complementary field experiments that test the interactive effects of warming with forest canopy disturbance and drought on energy flux in boreal–temperate ecotonal forest soil food webs. The first experiment applied a simultaneous above- and belowground warming treatment (ambient, +1.7 °C, +3.4 °C) to closed-canopy and recently clear-cut forest, simulating common forest disturbance6. The second experiment crossed warming with a summer drought treatment (-40% rainfall) in the clear-cut habitats. We show that warming reduces energy flux to microbes, while forest canopy disturbance and drought facilitates warming-induced increases in energy flux to higher trophic levels and exacerbates the reduction in energy flux to microbes, respectively. Contrary to expectations, we find no change in whole-network resilience to perturbations, but significant losses in ecosystem functioning. Warming thus interacts with forest disturbance and drought, shaping the energetic structure of soil food webs and threatening the provisioning of multiple ecosystem functions in boreal–temperate ecotonal forests.},
doi = {10.1038/s41558-017-0002-z},
journal = {Nature Climate Change},
number = 12,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Studies On the Nematode Fauna of an Acid Forest Soil: Spatial Distribution and Extraction
journal, January 1995


Phylogenetic grouping, curvature and metabolic scaling in terrestrial invertebrates: Invertebrate metabolism
journal, July 2011


Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment
journal, May 2008


Warming alters the size spectrum and shifts the distribution of biomass in freshwater ecosystems: WARMING ALTERS COMMUNITY SIZE STRUCTURE
journal, October 2010


Effects of soil temperature and moisture on the feeding activity of soil animals as determined by the bait-lamina test
journal, May 2008

  • Gongalsky, Konstantin B.; Persson, Tryggve; Pokarzhevskii, Andrei D.
  • Applied Soil Ecology, Vol. 39, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.11.007

Simultaneous Inference in General Parametric Models
journal, June 2008

  • Hothorn, Torsten; Bretz, Frank; Westfall, Peter
  • Biometrical Journal, Vol. 50, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/bimj.200810425

Utilization of organic materials in soil aggregates by bacteria and fungi
journal, January 1978


Environmental warming alters food-web structure and ecosystem function
journal, November 1999

  • Petchey, Owen L.; McPhearson, P. Timon; Casey, Timothy M.
  • Nature, Vol. 402, Issue 6757
  • DOI: 10.1038/47023

Effects of Size and Temperature on Metabolic Rate
journal, September 2001


Organic textile dye improves the visual assessment of the bait-lamina test
journal, October 2014


Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought
journal, January 2012

  • de Vries, Franciska T.; Liiri, Mira E.; Bjørnlund, Lisa
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1368

Ecological stability in response to warming
journal, February 2014

  • Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2134

Drought alters the structure and functioning of complex food webs
journal, September 2012

  • Ledger, Mark E.; Brown, Lee E.; Edwards, François K.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1684

Patterns in the Fate of Production in Plant Communities
journal, October 1999

  • Cebrian, Just
  • The American Naturalist, Vol. 154, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/303244

Interactive effects of warming, eutrophication and size structure: impacts on biodiversity and food-web structure
journal, November 2015

  • Binzer, Amrei; Guill, Christian; Rall, Björn C.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13086

Compartmentalization of the soil animal food web as indicated by dual analysis of stable isotope ratios (15N/14N and 13C/12C)
journal, June 2009


Managing uncertainty in soil carbon feedbacks to climate change
journal, July 2016

  • Bradford, Mark A.; Wieder, William R.; Bonan, Gordon B.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3071

The relation of energy and organic carbon in aquatic invertebrates1: Energy and organic carbon
journal, September 1976


Warming magnifies predation and reduces prey coexistence in a model litter arthropod system
journal, March 2017

  • Thakur, Madhav P.; Künne, Tom; Griffin, John N.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 284, Issue 1851
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.2570

Survival of two ecologically distinct bacteria (Flavobacterium and arthrobacter) in unplanted and rhizosphere soil: Field studies
journal, January 1992


The Ecology of Nematodes in Agroecosystems
journal, September 1985


A critique of the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) as a bioindicator of disturbance and ecosystem development
journal, December 1995


Climate change effects on soil microarthropod abundance and community structure
journal, January 2011


Simulation of Nitrogen Mineralization in the Below-Ground Food Webs of Two Winter Wheat Fields
journal, January 1993

  • Ruiter, P. C. De; Moore, J. C.; Zwart, K. B.
  • The Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 30, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.2307/2404274

Effects of environmental warming and drought on size-structured soil food webs
journal, December 2013


A bioenergetic framework for the temperature dependence of trophic interactions
journal, June 2014

  • Gilbert, Benjamin; Tunney, Tyler D.; McCann, Kevin S.
  • Ecology Letters, Vol. 17, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/ele.12307

Direct contribution by soil arthropods to nutrient availability through body and faecal nutrient content
journal, October 1992

  • Teuben, A.; Verhoef, H. A.
  • Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 14, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00336253

Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States
journal, December 2014

  • Pederson, Neil; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Dyer, James M.
  • Global Change Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12779

Energetics, Patterns of Interaction Strengths, and Stability in Real Ecosystems
journal, September 1995


An inter-laboratory comparison of ten different ways of measuring soil microbial biomass C
journal, July 1997


Fungal-feeding habits of six nematode isolates in the genus Filenchus
journal, June 2005


Long-term forest soil warming alters microbial communities in temperate forest soils
journal, February 2015

  • DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Pold, Grace; TopçuoÄŸlu, Begüm D.
  • Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 6
  • DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00104

Scaling regression inputs by dividing by two standard deviations
journal, January 2008

  • Gelman, Andrew
  • Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 27, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/sim.3107

A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils
journal, January 1978


Thermal adaptation of soil microbial respiration to elevated temperature
journal, December 2008


Soil meso- and macrofauna in two agricultural systems: factors affecting population dynamics and evaluation of their role in carbon and nitrogen dynamics
journal, November 1994

  • Didden, W. A. M.; Marinissen, J. C. Y.; Vreeken-Buijs, M. J.
  • Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 51, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0167-8809(94)90042-6

Stability in Real Food Webs: Weak Links in Long Loops
journal, May 2002


Reconciling complexity with stability in naturally assembling food webs
journal, October 2007

  • Neutel, Anje-Margriet; Heesterbeek, Johan A. P.; van de Koppel, Johan
  • Nature, Vol. 449, Issue 7162
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06154

Invertebrate body sizes from Marion Island
journal, June 2001


Temperature, predator-prey interaction strength and population stability: TEMPERATURE AND INTERACTION STRENGTH
journal, November 2009


Community food web, decomposition and nitrogen mineralisation in a stratified Scots pine forest soil
journal, July 2001


Consequences of tropical land use for multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
journal, October 2014

  • Barnes, Andrew D.; Jochum, Malte; Mumme, Steffen
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6351

Soil biodiversity and human health
journal, November 2015

  • Wall, Diana H.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Six, Johan
  • Nature, Vol. 528, Issue 7580
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature15744

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Horizontal and vertical diversity jointly shape food web stability against small and large perturbations
    journal, May 2019

    • Zhao, Qinghua; Van den Brink, Paul J.; Carpentier, Camille
    • Ecology Letters, Vol. 22, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1111/ele.13282

    A simple model predicts how warming simplifies wild food webs
    journal, July 2019

    • O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Petchey, Owen L.; Faulkner, Katy J.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 9, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1038/s41558-019-0513-x