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# Analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator

## Abstract

In this paper we develop an analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator of a quantum many-particle system. The theory offers a useful approach to develop approximations to the time-evolution operator, and also provides a unified framework and starting point for many well-known approximations to the time-evolution operator. In the important special case of periodically driven systems at stroboscopic times, we find relatively simple equations for the coupling constants of the Floquet Hamiltonian, where a straightforward truncation of the couplings leads to a powerful class of approximations. Using our theory, we construct a flow chart that illustrates the connection between various common approximations, which also highlights some missing connections and associated approximation schemes. These missing connections turn out to imply an analytically accessible approximation that is the “inverse” of a rotating frame approximation and thus has a range of validity complementary to it. Here, we numerically test the various methods on the one-dimensional Ising model to confirm the ranges of validity that one would expect from the approximations used. The theory provides a map of the relations between the growing number of approximations for the time-evolution operator. We describe these relations in a table showing the limitations and advantagesmore »

- Authors:

- Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
- Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
- Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
- Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF); National Science Foundation (NSF)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1546524

- Alternate Identifier(s):
- OSTI ID: 1545446

- Grant/Contract Number:
- AC05-00OR22725; DMR-1729588; GBMF5305

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- Physical Review A

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9926

- Publisher:
- American Physical Society (APS)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

### Citation Formats

```
Vogl, Michael, Laurell, Pontus, Barr, Aaron D., and Fiete, Gregory A. Analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator. United States: N. p., 2019.
Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.100.012132.
```

```
Vogl, Michael, Laurell, Pontus, Barr, Aaron D., & Fiete, Gregory A. Analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.100.012132.
```

```
Vogl, Michael, Laurell, Pontus, Barr, Aaron D., and Fiete, Gregory A. Mon .
"Analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.100.012132.
```

```
@article{osti_1546524,
```

title = {Analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator},

author = {Vogl, Michael and Laurell, Pontus and Barr, Aaron D. and Fiete, Gregory A.},

abstractNote = {In this paper we develop an analog of Hamilton-Jacobi theory for the time-evolution operator of a quantum many-particle system. The theory offers a useful approach to develop approximations to the time-evolution operator, and also provides a unified framework and starting point for many well-known approximations to the time-evolution operator. In the important special case of periodically driven systems at stroboscopic times, we find relatively simple equations for the coupling constants of the Floquet Hamiltonian, where a straightforward truncation of the couplings leads to a powerful class of approximations. Using our theory, we construct a flow chart that illustrates the connection between various common approximations, which also highlights some missing connections and associated approximation schemes. These missing connections turn out to imply an analytically accessible approximation that is the “inverse” of a rotating frame approximation and thus has a range of validity complementary to it. Here, we numerically test the various methods on the one-dimensional Ising model to confirm the ranges of validity that one would expect from the approximations used. The theory provides a map of the relations between the growing number of approximations for the time-evolution operator. We describe these relations in a table showing the limitations and advantages of many common approximations, as well as the approximations introduced in this paper.},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.100.012132},

journal = {Physical Review A},

number = 1,

volume = 100,

place = {United States},

year = {2019},

month = {7}

}

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