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Title: Evidence for a vestigial nematic state in the cuprate pseudogap phase

Abstract

The CuO 2 antiferromagnetic insulator is transformed by hole-doping into an exotic quantum fluid usually referred to as the pseudogap (PG) phase. Additonally, its defining characteristic is a strong suppression of the electronic density-of-states D( E) for energies | E| < Δ * , where Δ * is the PG energy. Unanticipated broken-symmetry phases have been detected by a wide variety of techniques in the PG regime, most significantly a finite- Q density-wave (DW) state and a Q= 0 nematic (NE) state. Sublattice-phase-resolved imaging of electronic structure allows the doping and energy dependence of these distinct broken-symmetry states to be visualized simultaneously. Using this approach, we show that even though their reported ordering temperatures T DW and T NE are unrelated to each other, both the DW and NE states always exhibit their maximum spectral intensity at the same energy, and using independent measurements that this is the PG energy Δ * . Moreover, no new energy-gap opening coincides with the appearance of the DW state (which should theoretically open an energy gap on the Fermi surface), while the observed PG opening coincides with the appearance of the NE state (which should theoretically be incapable of opening a Fermi-surface gap). Lastly, we demonstrate how this perplexing phenomenology of thermal transitions and energy-gap opening at the breaking of two highly distinct symmetries may be understood as the natural consequence of a vestigial nematic state within the pseudogap phase of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [3]
  1. Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  2. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  5. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. Nanoelectronics Research Institute, Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
  7. Nanoelectronics Research Institute, Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)
  8. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  9. Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)
  10. Univ. College Cork (Ireland); Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1546047
Report Number(s):
BNL-211919-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-98CH10886; SC0018946
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 27; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; cuprate; pseudogap; broken symmetry; density wave; vestigial nematic

Citation Formats

Mukhopadhyay, Sourin, Sharma, Rahul, Kim, Chung Koo, Edkins, Stephen D., Hamidian, Mohammad H., Eisaki, Hiroshi, Uchida, Shin-ichi, Kim, Eun-Ah, Lawler, Michael J., Mackenzie, Andrew P., Davis, J. C. Séamus, and Fujita, Kazuhiro. Evidence for a vestigial nematic state in the cuprate pseudogap phase. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821454116.
Mukhopadhyay, Sourin, Sharma, Rahul, Kim, Chung Koo, Edkins, Stephen D., Hamidian, Mohammad H., Eisaki, Hiroshi, Uchida, Shin-ichi, Kim, Eun-Ah, Lawler, Michael J., Mackenzie, Andrew P., Davis, J. C. Séamus, & Fujita, Kazuhiro. Evidence for a vestigial nematic state in the cuprate pseudogap phase. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821454116.
Mukhopadhyay, Sourin, Sharma, Rahul, Kim, Chung Koo, Edkins, Stephen D., Hamidian, Mohammad H., Eisaki, Hiroshi, Uchida, Shin-ichi, Kim, Eun-Ah, Lawler, Michael J., Mackenzie, Andrew P., Davis, J. C. Séamus, and Fujita, Kazuhiro. Mon . "Evidence for a vestigial nematic state in the cuprate pseudogap phase". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821454116.
@article{osti_1546047,
title = {Evidence for a vestigial nematic state in the cuprate pseudogap phase},
author = {Mukhopadhyay, Sourin and Sharma, Rahul and Kim, Chung Koo and Edkins, Stephen D. and Hamidian, Mohammad H. and Eisaki, Hiroshi and Uchida, Shin-ichi and Kim, Eun-Ah and Lawler, Michael J. and Mackenzie, Andrew P. and Davis, J. C. Séamus and Fujita, Kazuhiro},
abstractNote = {The CuO2 antiferromagnetic insulator is transformed by hole-doping into an exotic quantum fluid usually referred to as the pseudogap (PG) phase. Additonally, its defining characteristic is a strong suppression of the electronic density-of-states D(E) for energies |E| <Δ*, whereΔ*is the PG energy. Unanticipated broken-symmetry phases have been detected by a wide variety of techniques in the PG regime, most significantly a finite-Q density-wave (DW) state and a Q= 0 nematic (NE) state. Sublattice-phase-resolved imaging of electronic structure allows the doping and energy dependence of these distinct broken-symmetry states to be visualized simultaneously. Using this approach, we show that even though their reported ordering temperaturesTDW and TNE are unrelated to each other, both the DW and NE states always exhibit their maximum spectral intensity at the same energy, and using independent measurements that this is the PG energyΔ*. Moreover, no new energy-gap opening coincides with the appearance of the DW state (which should theoretically open an energy gap on the Fermi surface), while the observed PG opening coincides with the appearance of the NE state (which should theoretically be incapable of opening a Fermi-surface gap). Lastly, we demonstrate how this perplexing phenomenology of thermal transitions and energy-gap opening at the breaking of two highly distinct symmetries may be understood as the natural consequence of a vestigial nematic state within the pseudogap phase of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1821454116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 27,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Electronic liquid-crystal phases of a doped Mott insulator
    journal, June 1998

    • Kivelson, S. A.; Fradkin, E.; Emery, V. J.
    • Nature, Vol. 393, Issue 6685
    • DOI: 10.1038/31177

    Evidence for stripe correlations of spins and holes in copper oxide superconductors
    journal, June 1995

    • Tranquada, J. M.; Sternlieb, B. J.; Axe, J. D.
    • Nature, Vol. 375, Issue 6532
    • DOI: 10.1038/375561a0

    Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in the pseudogap state of a high-Tc superconductor
    journal, April 2002

    • Kaminski, A.; Rosenkranz, S.; Fretwell, H. M.
    • Nature, Vol. 416, Issue 6881
    • DOI: 10.1038/416610a

    Unusual magnetic order in the pseudogap region of the superconductor HgBa2CuO4+δ
    journal, September 2008


    Intra-unit-cell electronic nematicity of the high-Tc copper-oxide pseudogap states
    journal, July 2010

    • Lawler, M. J.; Fujita, K.; Lee, Jhinhwan
    • Nature, Vol. 466, Issue 7304
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature09169

    Bounding the pseudogap with a line of phase transitions in YBa2Cu3O6+δ
    journal, June 2013

    • Shekhter, Arkady; Ramshaw, B. J.; Liang, Ruixing
    • Nature, Vol. 498, Issue 7452
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12165

    Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor
    journal, September 2015


    Detection of a Cooper-pair density wave in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x
    journal, April 2016

    • Hamidian, M. H.; Edkins, S. D.; Joo, Sang Hyun
    • Nature, Vol. 532, Issue 7599
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature17411

    The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction
    journal, December 2015

    • Forgan, E. M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10064

    Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85
    journal, July 2015

    • Mangin-Thro, L.; Sidis, Y.; Wildes, A.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8705

    Symmetry of charge order in cuprates
    journal, May 2015

    • Comin, R.; Sutarto, R.; He, F.
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4295

    Direct observation of competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67
    journal, October 2012

    • Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 8, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2456

    Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate d-symmetry form factor density wave state
    journal, October 2015

    • Hamidian, M. H.; Edkins, S. D.; Kim, Chung Koo
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3519

    A global inversion-symmetry-broken phase inside the pseudogap region of YBa2Cu3Oy
    journal, November 2016

    • Zhao, L.; Belvin, C. A.; Liang, R.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3962

    Thermodynamic evidence for a nematic phase transition at the onset of the pseudogap in YBa2Cu3Oy
    journal, July 2017

    • Sato, Y.; Kasahara, S.; Murayama, H.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys4205

    Quenched disorder and vestigial nematicity in the pseudogap regime of the cuprates
    journal, May 2014

    • Nie, L.; Tarjus, G.; Kivelson, S. A.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406019111

    Direct phase-sensitive identification of a d-form factor density wave in underdoped cuprates
    journal, July 2014

    • Fujita, K.; Hamidian, M. H.; Edkins, S. D.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 111, Issue 30
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406297111

    Stripe phases in high-temperature superconductors
    journal, August 1999

    • Emery, V. J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Tranquada, J. M.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 96, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.96.16.8814

    The pseudogap: friend or foe of high T c ?
    journal, December 2005


    From a Single-Band Metal to a High-Temperature Superconductor via Two Thermal Phase Transitions
    journal, March 2011


    Topological Defects Coupling Smectic Modulations to Intra-Unit-Cell Nematicity in Cuprates
    journal, July 2011


    Long-Range Incommensurate Charge Fluctuations in (Y,Nd)Ba2Cu3O6+x
    journal, July 2012


    Charge Order Driven by Fermi-Arc Instability in Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuO6+ 
    journal, December 2013


    Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at high magnetic fields
    journal, November 2015