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Title: SPIRITS 16tn in NGC 3556: A Heavily Obscured and Low-luminosity Supernova at 8.8 Mpc

Abstract

Here, we present the discovery by the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) of a likely supernova (SN) in NGC 3556 (M108) at only 8.8 Mpc that was not detected by optical searches. A luminous infrared (IR) transient at M [4.5] = -16.7 mag (Vega), SPIRITS 16tn is coincident with a dust lane in the inclined, star-forming disk of the host. Using observations in the IR, optical, and radio, we attempt to determine the nature of this event. We estimate A V ≈ 8–9 mag of extinction, placing it among the three most highly obscured IR-discovered SNe. The [4.5] light curve declined at a rate of 0.013 mag day -1, and the [3.6]–[4.5] color increased from 0.7 to gsim1.0 mag by 184.7 days post discovery. Optical/IR spectroscopy shows a red continuum but no clearly discernible features, preventing a definitive spectroscopic classification. Radio observations constrain the radio luminosity of SPIRITS 16tn to L ν ≲ 10 24 erg s -1 Hz -1 between 3 and 15 GHz, excluding many varieties of core-collapse SNe. An SN Ia is ruled out by the observed IR color and lack of spectroscopic features from Fe-peak elements. SPIRITS 16tn was fainter at [4.5] than typical stripped-envelopemore » SNe by ≈1 mag. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution to SNe II suggests that SPIRITS 16tn was both highly obscured and intrinsically dim, possibly akin to the low-luminosity SN 2005cs. We infer the presence of an IR dust echo powered by an initial peak luminosity of the transient of 5 × 10 40 erg s -1L peak ≲ 4 × 10 43 erg s -1, consistent with the observed range for SNe II. This discovery illustrates the power of IR surveys to overcome the compounding effects of visible extinction and optically subluminous events in completing the inventory of nearby SNe.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [6];  [1]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [9]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  2. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  3. Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
  4. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)
  5. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
  6. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA (United States)
  7. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  8. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
  9. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  10. Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1545634
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 863; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; dust; extinction - galaxies; individual (NGC 3556) - supernovae; general - supernovae; individual (SPIRITS 16tn) - surveys

Citation Formats

Jencson, Jacob E., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Adams, Scott M., Bond, Howard E., Lau, Ryan M., Johansson, Joel, Horesh, Assaf, Mooley, Kunal P., Fender, Robert, De, Kishalay, O’Sullivan, Dónal, Masci, Frank J., Cody, Ann Marie, Blagorodnova, Nadia, Fox, Ori D., Gehrz, Robert D., Milne, Peter A., Perley, Daniel A., Smith, Nathan, and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. SPIRITS 16tn in NGC 3556: A Heavily Obscured and Low-luminosity Supernova at 8.8 Mpc. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aacf8b.
Jencson, Jacob E., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Adams, Scott M., Bond, Howard E., Lau, Ryan M., Johansson, Joel, Horesh, Assaf, Mooley, Kunal P., Fender, Robert, De, Kishalay, O’Sullivan, Dónal, Masci, Frank J., Cody, Ann Marie, Blagorodnova, Nadia, Fox, Ori D., Gehrz, Robert D., Milne, Peter A., Perley, Daniel A., Smith, Nathan, & Van Dyk, Schuyler D. SPIRITS 16tn in NGC 3556: A Heavily Obscured and Low-luminosity Supernova at 8.8 Mpc. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aacf8b.
Jencson, Jacob E., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Adams, Scott M., Bond, Howard E., Lau, Ryan M., Johansson, Joel, Horesh, Assaf, Mooley, Kunal P., Fender, Robert, De, Kishalay, O’Sullivan, Dónal, Masci, Frank J., Cody, Ann Marie, Blagorodnova, Nadia, Fox, Ori D., Gehrz, Robert D., Milne, Peter A., Perley, Daniel A., Smith, Nathan, and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. Tue . "SPIRITS 16tn in NGC 3556: A Heavily Obscured and Low-luminosity Supernova at 8.8 Mpc". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aacf8b. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1545634.
@article{osti_1545634,
title = {SPIRITS 16tn in NGC 3556: A Heavily Obscured and Low-luminosity Supernova at 8.8 Mpc},
author = {Jencson, Jacob E. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Adams, Scott M. and Bond, Howard E. and Lau, Ryan M. and Johansson, Joel and Horesh, Assaf and Mooley, Kunal P. and Fender, Robert and De, Kishalay and O’Sullivan, Dónal and Masci, Frank J. and Cody, Ann Marie and Blagorodnova, Nadia and Fox, Ori D. and Gehrz, Robert D. and Milne, Peter A. and Perley, Daniel A. and Smith, Nathan and Van Dyk, Schuyler D.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the discovery by the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) of a likely supernova (SN) in NGC 3556 (M108) at only 8.8 Mpc that was not detected by optical searches. A luminous infrared (IR) transient at M[4.5] = -16.7 mag (Vega), SPIRITS 16tn is coincident with a dust lane in the inclined, star-forming disk of the host. Using observations in the IR, optical, and radio, we attempt to determine the nature of this event. We estimate A V ≈ 8–9 mag of extinction, placing it among the three most highly obscured IR-discovered SNe. The [4.5] light curve declined at a rate of 0.013 mag day-1, and the [3.6]–[4.5] color increased from 0.7 to gsim1.0 mag by 184.7 days post discovery. Optical/IR spectroscopy shows a red continuum but no clearly discernible features, preventing a definitive spectroscopic classification. Radio observations constrain the radio luminosity of SPIRITS 16tn to L ν ≲ 1024 erg s-1 Hz-1 between 3 and 15 GHz, excluding many varieties of core-collapse SNe. An SN Ia is ruled out by the observed IR color and lack of spectroscopic features from Fe-peak elements. SPIRITS 16tn was fainter at [4.5] than typical stripped-envelope SNe by ≈1 mag. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution to SNe II suggests that SPIRITS 16tn was both highly obscured and intrinsically dim, possibly akin to the low-luminosity SN 2005cs. We infer the presence of an IR dust echo powered by an initial peak luminosity of the transient of 5 × 1040 erg s-1 ≲ L peak ≲ 4 × 1043 erg s-1, consistent with the observed range for SNe II. This discovery illustrates the power of IR surveys to overcome the compounding effects of visible extinction and optically subluminous events in completing the inventory of nearby SNe.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aacf8b},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 863,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 848
  • DOI: 10.1086/508366

Optical and near infrared observations of SN 1998bu
journal, October 2004


Sdss-Iii: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky way, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems
journal, August 2011

  • Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 142, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/142/3/72

A Systematic Study of Mid-Infrared Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae with Spirits
journal, December 2016


Intergalactic Medium Emission Observations with the Cosmic web Imager. i. the Circum-Qso Medium of qso 1549+19, and Evidence for a Filamentary gas Inflow
journal, April 2014

  • Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 786, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/786/2/106

V838 MONOCEROTIS: A GEOMETRIC DISTANCE FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE POLARIMETRIC IMAGING OF ITS LIGHT ECHO
journal, January 2008


A deep Search for Prompt Radio Emission from Thermonuclear Supernovae with the very Large Array
journal, April 2016

  • Chomiuk, Laura; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 821, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/821/2/119

Empirical color transformations between SDSS photometry and other photometric systems
journal, September 2006


Unsupervised Clustering of type ii Supernova Light Curves
journal, September 2016


RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE Ic SN 2007gr REVEAL AN ORDINARY, NON-RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION
journal, November 2010


The UKIRT wide field camera ZYJHK photometric system: calibration from 2MASS
journal, April 2009


Radio and X‐Ray Emission as Probes of Type IIP Supernovae and Red Supergiant Mass Loss
journal, April 2006

  • Chevalier, Roger A.; Fransson, Claes; Nymark, Tanja K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/500528

The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope
journal, January 2007

  • Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.; Werner, M. W.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 78, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2431313

Spectroscopy of supernova 1987A at 1−5 µm – I. The first year
journal, May 1989

  • Meikle, W. P. S.; Allen, David A.; Spyromilio, J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 238, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/238.1.193

The nature of supernovae 2010O and 2010P in Arp 299 – II. Radio emission
journal, March 2014

  • Romero-Cañizales, C.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 440, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu430

The size distribution of interstellar grains
journal, October 1977

  • Mathis, J. S.; Rumpl, W.; Nordsieck, K. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 217
  • DOI: 10.1086/155591

Core-Collapse Supernovae Missed by Optical Surveys
journal, August 2012


Supernovae in the nuclear regions of starburst galaxies
journal, June 2001


Massive star mergers and the recent transient in NGC 4490: a more massive cousin of V838 Mon and V1309 Sco
journal, February 2016

  • Smith, Nathan; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw219

CHARACTERIZING THE V -BAND LIGHT-CURVES OF HYDROGEN-RICH TYPE II SUPERNOVAE
journal, April 2014

  • Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 786, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/67

Self-similarity and scaling behaviour of infrared emission from radiatively heated dust -- I. Theory
journal, June 1997

  • Ivezi ,  eljko; Elitzur, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 287, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/287.4.799

Circumstellar Emission from Type Ib and Ic Supernovae
journal, November 2006

  • Chevalier, Roger A.; Fransson, Claes
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 651, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/507606

TOWARD CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR POPULATION: A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF LIGHT CURVES FROM Pan-STARRS1
journal, January 2015


SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163
journal, March 2017

  • Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Johansson, Joel
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 837, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa618f

SN 2005cs in M51 - II. Complete evolution in the optical and the near-infrared
journal, April 2009


Discovery of a Very Highly Extinguished Supernova in a Luminous Infrared Galaxy
journal, November 2008

  • Kankare, E.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 689, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/595820

Discovery of two infrared supernovae: A new window on the SN search
journal, June 2002


Follow-up observations at 16 and 33���GHz of extragalactic sources from WMAP 3-yr data: I ��� Spectral properties
journal, December 2009

  • Davies, Matthew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Davies, Rod D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 400, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15518.x

Distance estimate and progenitor characteristics of SN 2005cs in M51
journal, November 2006